- art history
- family history
- guest exhibition
- local history
- motion pictures
- pop culture
“Bright, colourful and loud as the roar of cannons!” – Little advert history
Whether you are aware of it or not, pay attention to it or not, it is still there everywhere and around you, in order that its impulses urge you to shop. Although the methods during centuries in the history of advertising changed due to technical developments, the main element of advertising remained raising attention from times immemorial.
“Flags are flapping, songs are flying” - The story of the pioneers
It is more than probable that those born before the turn of the millennium do not need to explain in detail the role and concept of pioneers and light railroaders. However, the question may arise in many of us ‘where and how it started’. In which cities did it get a bigger role, and what did it all look like? In the followings, a brief historical overview can be read for the curious ones and a pleasant retrospective for those who already knew it.
“The yellow is the finest.
…Reams and reams of letters could I write in yellow ink to her, the little schoolgirl of my dreams. I'd scrawl something that looks like Japanese, then try a bird, most intricately scrolled.” – Dezső Kosztolányi wrote this in the poem I dream of coloured inks. If you look up to the sky, you see the sun yellow, but its colour is white actually, which means it contains all the colours. Colour depends on the wavelength of light: humans perceive the light yellow between 565 and 590 nanometres wavelength.
„King of trains, train of kings” – The Orient Express
Luxury wherever your eyes can see, dashing and beautiful landscapes. Everything that means the Orient Express. If we lived at the turn of the 19th-20th centuries and belonged to a group of nobility, it would be almost an expectation to be part of the experience offered by the luxury train at least once, where the point is not really the destination but the journey. Among our fellow passengers, there would have been for example, the Bulgarian Tsar Ferdinand I, Danilo Crown Prince of Montenegro, or an Indian Maharaja who set out with all his wives.
Self-portraits: works of art whose models were the creators themselves. Hearing this word, some famous pictures appear in our mind’s eye, for example Albrecht Dürer's self-portrait, as he depicted himself as Jesus Christ; Raphael’s calm features or about a hundred self-portrait engravings, drawings and paintings of Rembrandt van Rijn.
650th anniversary of the University of Pécs
As of 2017, the first day of September will be the Day of the Hungarian Higher Education, the memorial day of the foundation of the University of Pécs. On the 650th anniversary of the foundation of the University, we are commemorating this institute of great tradition with the following virtual exhibition.
A bridge as a link
In our language, the meanings related to a bridge or bridges and the metaphoric content of meaning emphasize their role of linking and interconnecting. In the urbanistic aspect, we can say that the history of the Budapest bridges is also the history of Budapest, but the situation is the same in the country too. The bridges that were exploded in the war and were rebuilt from scratch, the maimed elements of bridges during decades, served not only as functional elements, but also for spanning over borderlines or separating them. This week’s story is about bridges built between Buda and Pest, disappeared quarters, reconstructions and temporary solutions. Have a nice browsing!
A different corona: Virgin Mary, Queen of the Pious Schools
The digital chamber-exhibition of the Piarist Museum is offering a representative selection from different depictions of the Virgin Mary preserved in the collection. Scenes from Mary’s life, universal symbols of Marianism, and copies of icons and statues of Mary shrines related to the Piarist Order and Hungary appear on 17th-18th century Baroque engravings.
A dog’s life
Dogs have been living with us from times immemorial, and still play important roles in our lives. They used to help people in hunting and shepherding, and now they are also occupied with leading the blind, rescuing and providing therapies.Dogs were developed by the domestication of an already-extinct subspecies of wolves. When it happened exactly is still a question of debates, but they have been partners of humans probably since the Palaeolithic age or the Neolithic age. Dog breeds are extremely colourful, and are classified in ten dog races on the basis of appearance or role.
A good seller brings money, a bad one takes it away
No doubt, there are goods that sell themselves, but what happens if a product doesn’t have the right appeal? That's when a skilful seller appears on the scene. But what do you need to succeed? This week, those behind the counter will be in the lead.
A great Hungarian and a proud American scientist: his oeuvre is a Hungarikum
If you ask people in the streets of Hungary about János Neumann, it is likely that they will know his name and will answer: „he is the inventor of the computer”. This is a laurel that was never sought by the scientist, who was born in Budapest, in a house at the corner of Bajcsy-Zsilinszky Street and Báthori Street in 1903, and as a “wonder child” he graduated at the Fasori Evangelical Secondary Grammar School among László Rátz’ students, to become a chemical engineer, and later an internationally renowned mathematician, the Man of the twentieth century.
A little Hungarian chess history
According to what we know today, the game of chess originated in India. It started its world conquest in the 7th century from there, as well as from Persia. It was probably brought to Europe through Arab mediation. Where, when and from whom we Hungarians learned the game is not known. However, the sport of the mind has a rich history in our country too.
A sound mind in a sound body
Physical education – the expression supposes a noble and elevating activity, but we might not be wrong saying that it recalls the torture of rope-climbing or the memory of running around breathlessly in many people. Some people would rather forget about the experience of physical education at school, though nobody questions the importance of a regular exercise. This week, we are reviewing the reasons why the P.E. lesson was born.
A table for two with shade, view and fresh air
Compared to previous years, beer-gardens and terraces have been opened a bit later than usual this year, due to the winter in April after Easter, but slowly one can plan to sit outside more confidently. Let’s look around the terraces of restaurants and taverns next to once-popular hiking destinations. First on the side of Buda.
A unique liqueur and family story
The family Zwack has been leading their factory for the past six generations, not counting the period of nationalization. Their name and lives welded with Unicum. A secret recipe, positive thinking, some good luck and venturesome spirit. Is that all their secret? Our current collection reveals it.
About railway stations
Station buildings are a kind of gateway in the fabric of a city, and, as well as the coming and going of departures and arrivals, they are sometimes the site of our forced waiting. Interestingly, this waiting was not always a burden, and in the days of civilised waiting rooms, the Royal waiting halls and the “resti” (small railway inns), it was even a way of passing the time. The buildings of railway stations were, of course, primarily functional, and although the form of railway stations has been influenced by history, our travel habits have changed at least as much as these stations.
About the Lechners – Jenő Kismarty-Lechner’s oeuvre
“He built a hell of a lot of monuments. The next generation will have a hard battle with the committee of monuments if they want to demolish. His main works: the fourth floor of the Museum (what a pity that nobody goes up there), the assembly hall of the Ministry of Interior (nobody is allowed to get in there), and the Basilica of Esztergom in Tisztviselőtelep.” These characterising lines were published in the architect students’ joke paper Megfagyott Muzsikus (frozen musician) about Jenő Kismarty-Lechner. You are going to be introduced into his oeuvre this week.
Ady’s forgotten Muse
Love fades away slowly, especially if it is platonic. How many untold words and missed opportunities are hidden behind tiny little memories and letters? Waiting, suffering, the joy, the pain and many more sentiments could be hidden in a young girl’s heart, when she decided to give up her desires. Whether provincial prudery or a moral question stood behind this? Anyway, could you keep a secret like your love is Endre Ady for decades? Today’s selection highlights this mysterious relationship; with Endre Ady, Illi Kíváncsi (Curious), the family Varga and their relatives.
Aqua vitae in the “officina” – pharmacy history overview
With the help of images from our database, we visit the pharmacies of old times: we admire the ornate furnishings, special chemist’s vessels, and the science of medicine-makers. Our exhibition will explore aqua vitae, water burners, sugar (believed to be) healing, soda water, powerful religious and mythological influences, pharmacies dedicated to various symbolic animals.
Nowadays, it is taken for granted that you can open the tap and get either cold drinking water or fine warm water. But only few people have this luck in the world and maybe our grandchildren will not be able to enjoy this comfort. How did water supply developed in Hungary since the ancient Romans? Would you ever think of how many aquatic relics you pass by during your days? Our aquatic exhibition is going to answer these questions.
Aquincum, Roman ruins, history of the museum
Regular archaeological excavations have been carried out in the territory of Budapest for more than 150 years, but new archaeological monuments still appear during constructions. The history of Aquincum can only be reconstructed with the help of excavations, as few historical sources mention Pannonia and the cities along the Danube.
Are women who read dangerous?
Of course not. But why is this idea interesting? According to reading sociological surveys, literature is read by women mostly, at least they say that when they are asked. The changes in reading habits has been a subject of arguments for a long time, especially about the fact that we do not read books, in addition, our children do not read either. Instead of stereotyped phrases, this week, we are looking at what female readers read and how they were approached in the past centuries.
Are you bored? Knit a bit!
Knitting, crocheting or any other needlework are not just excellent free time activities, but they also have similar effect on your brain as yoga has on your body. The repeating series of movements make you relaxed and cause nearly meditative state. Thus, your brain can get rid of brooding over the past and continuous worrying. It is interesting not only because of its physiological effect. Knitting patterns for example look back on a long relation with spying in the past. This week, you can admire crocheted, knitted and embroidered fabrics.
Artistic anatomical explications
In our exhibition we present anatomical drawings from our database with a brief historical overview, with the Renaissance artists who laid the foundations and the local masters. Artistic anatomy, which encourages observation and analysis, has been part of art education for centuries. In Hungary, students already attended anatomy lectures in the second half of the 19th century. The genre is a fascinating, sometimes eerie blend of art and science.
As long as the Danube… - hairstyle-historical curiosities
The human head of hair is an inevitable part of cultural history. During history, men usually formed their hair and facial hair according to fashion, followed the actual ruler – and sometimes wore a certain hairstyle because of revolt or constraint. In case of women, mainly in folk cultures, hairstyles always meant something: age, marital status – besides the fashion and revolt. Wearing and presenting hair are immortal symbols of life-force, health, and it also signifies power and is a tool of self-expression.
At the café - better than being at home
Espresso, double espresso, long coffee, cappuccino, ristretto, mocha, macchiato, melange, café au lait, Irish, Turkish, coffee with milk, with ice or whipped cream. With or without sugar. In the morning, at noon, in the evening. At home, in a street, on a veranda, on a terrace, during work or during a break, in a real cup or paper cup, from the corridor machine or at a boulevard café, in any seasons; coffee. One cup of perfect coffee demands 7 grams of ground coffee. But what kind of demand lay behind going to the café at the turn of the century?
Atomic rockets on standby: key figures and the most dangerous situations of the cold war
In fact, several people were important characters in the cold war – President Truman, George Marshall and President Eisenhower -, but the real key figure and main character of this story is just one person: Nikita Khrushchev. The evolvement and aggravation of the cold war situation is owing to him mainly. On one hand, his reforms made the Soviet Union determinant economically and strategically, on the other hand, he hindered diplomatic relations with his unpredictable and labile mentality, forcing the leaders of the great Western powers to stand on the defensive.
Attraction and profanity of abstract art and its role in creating lifelike virtual reality
There have always been people who hated abstract imagery, condemned it profane, degenerate, chaotic or inexpressive – so did Hitler for example -, but abstract has had a great deal of fans as well. Beyond coloured playfulness and the appeal to novelty, the secret of its popularity is that depicting unearthly spaces and dimensions gives some artworks a spiritual power of expression. The abstract art provides opportunity to create eye-catching fractal patterns, which can be found in nature, in art or in virtual space.
As we are proceeding in autumn, the scenery puts on more and more red and pink shades, darkness starts earlier and mornings turn cooler and cooler. Pumpkins and gourds have already appeared on greengrocers’ stands, and flower seller old women offer asters and rosehips. Deciduous plants have started their annual purifying cure, getting rid of their leaves. Chestnuts are falling, which is excellent material for making amorphous toy horses.
Balatonfüred retrospective – the fame history of Füred in a nutshell
According to archive news articles, the history of the popularity of Balatonfüred started with its medicinal springs. The first bungalows of Balatonfüred – for holiday reasons – were built next to the medicinal springs; they were replaced by bath houses and inns later. The growing fame of the holiday resort was promoted by – besides the king’s visit – an unpleasant event, paradoxically, that caused “negative publicity” and by the affirmation of a duchess, who said that the medicinal water of the place cured her twice.
Basalt cliffs, wine terraces and Muses’ kisses
Badacsony. Our peculiar-shaped butte brings up a great deal of positive associations in our minds: a holiday at Lake Balaton, the taste of Badacsony wines (kéknyelű, szürkebarát), a joyful compotation with crackling cones, a walk on the mountainside covered with vine-plants, a tour among the basalt cliffs. All these will be evoked during a virtual trip on the slopes of Badacsony in our current exhibition.
Bathing and wellness culture at the beginning of the 20th century
Although beach-bathing – including sun- and air-bathing – was thought to have special healing and innovating power at the beginning of the previous century, beach-bathing served for relaxing primarily (just like today) and for surviving hot summer days. The wellness services of the period were ‘steam-chamber, electro bath, hydraulic massage’, pine-needle bath and relaxing in air-bath houses with breezy walls, built for air bathing.
Bathing is one of the oldest cultural possessions of mankind. Baths built on the territory of the former Pannonia could be the centres of social life; just think about Aquincum that must have been a real spa as ruins of several baths were found during excavations. Later even Christians used medicinal springs, and built cloisters and hospitals next to them, for example the healing place of the leper was Rudas Bath. But baths became really famous only later.
Beach-style – Swimsuit fashion from bathing costumes to bikinis
In our current exhibition, we are going to visit the lidos of the past century and find out how bathing suits became smaller and shorter. What beach fashion did our parents and grandparents follow? Who popularized the bikini that was regarded as a taboo initially? How did the atomic bomb and a strip dancer influence the swimsuit fashion? And how was it connected to James Bond and Star Wars? Our exhibition will give you the answers.
Beastly good places
It is difficult to say why a catering-industrial unit becomes popular, but it is certain that its name and location count a lot. Their names range on a wide palette from the logical ones – like Mókus (Squirrel) beer garden in Mókus Street – to the creative ones, like the Zokogó Majom (Sobbing Monkey) of Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca). Owners could think about naming as any marketing experts do nowadays: it must not be a trivial name. There is life beyond the classically simple ‘Pub’. This week we are inviting you to some beastly good places, from Squirrel to Honey Bear.
Beauty and beast, magic spaces, skulls and roses – The origin of ex libris theme world
Beyond introducing blazons, landscapes, street views, interiors and style world of ancient ages, bookplates reflect their values, ideas and culture as well. Although the classification of the theme world of bookplates is not an easy task – because of their variety -, it is not an impossible mission. We are going to highlight some of them, along the definition of the main bookplate theme groups, and reveal the cultural background and historical origin hiding behind the imagery.
Beginning of the 1900s in the pictures of Gömöri Museum
Either talking about work or relaxation, life was rather different in Hungary one hundred years ago. In fact, there are similarities too. In this week’s virtual exhibition, we are evoking the world of the beginning of the 20th century via pictures and period articles of the archive collection of Gömöri Museum, through modern eyes, especially in terms of different activities: from work and professions to amusement and hobbies.
Behind the camera: Elemér Révhelyi
Looking at Elemér Révhelyi’s photos, silhouettes of a varicoloured unique collection come up. His own photos are primarily related to buildings and cities designed by Jakab Fellner. However, his collection includes not only the Hungarian baroque architecture, but also well-known touristic sights of foreign cities. Our current virtual exhibition introduces ‘photographers’ of our database, first of all art historian Elemér Révhelyi. His heritage was placed in the Kuny Domokos Museum of Tata, according to his last will, and we would like to thank the Museum that they enriched our database.
Behind the camera: István Skoflek
In István Skoflek’s pictures, not only the figure of an enthusiastic local patriot is drawn but also his love of nature and collecting. Skoflek was not a professional photographer – just like Elemér Révhelyi – this is why his collection is so special. What architecture meant to Révhelyi was that nature meant to Skoflek. The common thing is Tata with a difference of a couple of decades. In our actual selection, you can skim through his pictures; his legacy is preserved by the Kuny Domokos Museum of Tata, whom we would like to thank for enriching our database.
Behind the camera: Sándor Bauer
Who is a photographer? An artist, who creates a new reality, or the one who documents it? Maybe the one, who modifies it according to their or others’ tastes? Probably all of them a little bit. This week, we have selected Sándor Bauer’s photos, whose life-work is exciting not only because he was a professional photographer, but also because he worked during the soft dictatorship of the Kádár era. Did he take propaganda photos? Naturally! Besides that, he shot many curiosities too. Café waitresses serving finely roasted cream coffee, a Fabulon-girl posing on the Fishermen’s Bastion and Mátyás Rákosi.
Birds from bird’s eye view
In the country, you wake up to the song of invisible birds and you slalom among tame pigeons in the city. Birds are part of your life, but still it is stunning that they form one of the largest classes of animals with 9900 species. There are 400 species in Hungary. We depend on them because people’s main nutriments come from the meat and eggs of the domesticated species. We also like watching the wild ones when walking in nature. Let’s see some curiosities about these winged creatures!
Black for wedding, white for mourning – colours of Hungarian folk costumes
Hungarian folk costumes are traditional clothes that ‘wear’ the characteristics and customs of different regions. The main territories are: Transdanubia, Upper Hungary (or Upland), the Great Plain and Transylvania. There are lots of regions within these territories, having their own folk costumes. The world of colours and motifs of these clothes are fairly varied. Durability was an important aspect when they were made, thus several generations were able to wear them – which is unfortunately unimaginable nowadays in the world of ‘fast fashion’.
Living in a block of flats is a special experience: the sounds coming through the thin walls, the distinctive smell of linoleum on the stairway, the sound of the garbage chute, the sultriness in summer in the heated rooms, the aroma of food prepared next door - all of these can be familiar. Not to mention how the community and infrastructure of the housing estate - the playground, kindergarten, school or even the convenience store - were defining elements of the block life.
One of the best occasions for taking city photos is when the sun is disappearing on the horizon or when it hasn’t appeared yet. The sky is blazing in the most beautiful shades of blue, the orange lights of the city have just been lit or they are still on. Plenty of this kind of photos can be found on the internet. Almost every second findings of the search word ‘Budapest’ were made during the ‘blue hour’. The blue colour of the sky is caused by the atmospheric light dissemination; without the atmosphere the sky would be black.
Book without title
A guest arrived at the Zrínyi Hotel of Balatonföldvár in June 1932. The already renowned author longed for solitude, because he did not have any privacy at home due to the guests attracted by his wife’s cooking. Naturally, he did not come only for that; his doctors wanted to cure his heart and he wanted to write. Ferenc Móra had a contract for a new novel, The Gold Coffin (Aranykoporsó). But he could not make progress with the work, actually he did not write a line of it yet, but the largest problem was that he did not have any idea. A decorative woman entertained him in the hotel professionally; their liaison has been well-known by literary history for a long time.
Nowadays, people frequent concerts at the Akvárium, while philharmonics prefer the Music Academy, but where did the people of the 19th century go out to, if they longed for amusement or music? In Pest, they went to the Redoute – opened in 1833, the predecessor of Pesti Vigadó – or to the Hungaria Hotel. Although the Vigadó had several functions; charity balls and gala parties were organised, but after all it was in Pest. The citizens of Buda did not like that, because the transport in the city was neither comfortable nor quick, especially in winter.
Development must go on! – as the phrase has it, but in practice we notice that it stops every now and then. The change – if it goes on its way – sometimes trends towards good, sometimes bad direction. It seems that it often stops completely without a state intervention. In case of certain changes, lucky circumstances (e.g. filling up of Rákos ditch) and sometimes misfortune play a role unfortunately (e.g. the disappearance of wines of Buda).
Cars in the socialist bloc
The Lada VAZ 2101 and VAZ 2103, whose everyday nicknames were „Zsiga 1200” (or Zsiguli) and „ezeröcsi”, were the favourite cars in Hungary for almost two decades. While propaganda films of the ’50s projected the vision of a limitless development of the communist block with gas-turbine powered cars, computer controlled or nuclear powered smart cars; in reality having a car (as a symbol of non-existent liberty) remained an unreachable dream for an average citizen.
The starting points of every holiday at Balaton are good weather and a packed-up family with air mattress, sun-cream and chilled drinks. But what to do if it rains? If your plans are upset, choose a cultural program, which can compensate for the missed bathing. Choose something like the Festetics Castle of Keszthely. This week we are wandering in the Castle – with the assistance of Balaton Museum.
Cave dwellings in the Bükk Mountain
The hollows, cave- or shore-dwellings, also known as cellar houses or stone houses, carved into the softer rock of hillsides for human habitation, are a special product of Hungarian folk architecture. These types of dwellings can be found in the mountainous areas of Hungary, mainly in the North Hungarian Mountains, the Buda Hills and the Transdanubian region. Our database contains a large number of images of cave dwellings in the Bükk and Bükkalja, so we will focus on this region in the article.
Chapters from the tram history of Budapest
Nowadays, you cannot imagine Budapest without trams, but it used to be differently. In fact, the tram network of the capital city was larger, but the undergrounds became the favourite by the seventies, thus they started thinning the tram network. Besides Hungary, you could see this tendency in Western Europe as well. This week, we are going to look into the tram transport of Budapest, and interlaced company establishments and well-known tram lines will follow our way.
You are already humming the catchy and melodious Christmas tunes unintendedly, while the fish is lying in the fridge without scales, and you are kneading the dough of the Christmas cake because you don’t want to leave it to the last moment; the cabbage also must be here somewhere, and a part of the gifts that is lying around you hasn’t been packed yet, while the other part is still in the shops, though you promised yourself that this year would be different… Hey, stop for a moment! What about relaxing? And what about the cozy moments that films, adverts and postcards propagate?
Cleanliness is half health
From Sándor Márai's Confessions of a Citizen, we know that "The bourgeoisie of the end of the century usually bathed only when they were ill or got married." The notion of cleanliness focused on something quite different, largely on the visible parts of the body, primarily clothing and the living environment. What was clean petticoats for women was clean collars and cuffs for men. The efforts our ancestors made to achieve the coveted cleanliness that was often synonymous with health are revealed in our latest selection.
Comradely greetings from Lake Balaton
We have already rested in cosy restaurant gardens sipping beer, watered wine or “Bambi” and walked under the shady trees of Margaret Island, visited the famous baths of the Monarchy, so now it’s time to go on holiday. How about Lake Balaton? Many of us first remember – besides the breathtaking coast – the “Zimmer Frei” apartments, the rammish smell of the corn on the cob – “maisbitte” – and the typical buildings of company resorts. Relaxing can be pleasant not only on the beach. Mountain lovers and rural thermal-bath-goers can also spend some nostalgic moments with the postcards and photos of our selection.
Count Gyula Andrássy and the Compromise
On 17 February 150 years ago, the Austrian Kaiser asked Count Gyula Andrássy to form his government and appointed him prime minister. The first responsible Hungarian government after the Compromise was established on 20 February, 1867. The dual monarchy that was born due to the Compromise consisted of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, with one emperor Franz Joseph I – Austrian Kaiser and Hungarian King.
Crimes at the turn of the century
Crime stories attract people’s attention; mysteries, thrill and scandals can always arouse great interest. It was not differently at the beginning of the 20th century either, as the great interest in the Elza Mágnás murder case shows – to mention a recently hyped case from the history of Hungarian criminalistics.
Cult of moustache
The moustache is a part of men’s facial hair that grows between the nose and the mouth. It is a secondary sex characteristic that also has an aesthetic function. In certain social groups, it is an identity creating power and a fashion phenomenon, a symbol that changes during history. They have a different role in the animal world: antennas and olfactory organs that help night animals, mainly felines and other small mammals. In the case of fishes (including catfish and carp) the moustache-like dermal pendants also serve sensing and orientation. You can even find birds with whiskers.
Cult of Saint Ladislaus
In the memory of posterity, St. Ladislaus (Hungarian: László) was an athletic, brave and heroic knight king. We know surprisingly much about his life; the chronicles are wordy, especially in the descriptions of battles and throne strifes. These descriptions drew a tough and purposeful ruler who also fenced very well. Still, the greatest merit of Ladislaus I of Hungary was that he continued Stephen's church-building work and consolidated the country's internal order during the period of internal strifes. Béla III of Hungary also contributed to the development of the Ladislaus cult, when he canonized Ladislaus on 27 June, 1192 with papal approval. This week we are dealing with his cult.
Cultural history of the Tatra Mountains – dragon bones, treasure hunters and sanatoria
The High Tatras are an Alpine holiday place that can be reached with a half-day journey from Budapest. They provide hiking and mountain climbing opportunities, fascinating peaks and clear fresh air. Tourism appeared in the 1820s at the feet of the Tatras, and splendid hotels of the Monarchy were built soon. Our virtual exhibition reveals how the common history of the massif and the people developed during the past couple of centuries.
Day of Hungarian Poetry
’Then why should I, a poet, study poetry? The wet star, that eye which swims upon the midnight eddy, may not with grace ascend the sky. Time oozes down, and I no longer suck the breast milk of fairytales; I quaff the real world in my hunger, whose foamy head is heaven's pales.’ (Quotation from Attila József’s Ars Poetica) Attila József’s question is not just a poetical question, because poetry is the life itself. The day of Hungarian poetry has been celebrated since 1964 on 11 April – Attila József’s birthday. We celebrate not only the poet, but also poetry and lyric. What is poetry and why should we commemorate it?
Decorative versos of visiting cards
The term ‘verso’ has Latin origin (folio verso) and is used to describe the back of a visiting card. The heyday of the visiting card in photography was between 1852 and 1919, and these cards were usually portraits, the verso of which was discovered very early by photographers as an advertising medium. On the back of the cards, the photographers not only gave the address of their studios but also their awards, accompanied by artistic graphics. In our current selection, these ornate versos, and with them the photographers' careers come to life.
Demolished memories, lost buildings – Budapest
I would like to invite you to a short walk in Budapest. Let’s explore which is the most expensive bomb-site of Budapest and why. What kind of buildings stood on the places of hotels on the Pest-side bank of the Danube? How did the busiest or most important meeting-points of Pest – Deák Ferenc Square, Blaha Lujza Square, and Kálvin Square - transform? And why were the City Hall and a whole residential area of Buda demolished?
Demolished memories, lost buildings – chief towns, settlements
My previous article is continued now with moving the focus from the buildings and squares of Budapest to the buildings of chief towns and small settlements, which you cannot see anymore in the way they used to be 25, 50, 100 or more years ago. The article reveals what you can look upon in Győr and what the inhabitants of Kecskemét had to face when waking up on 8 July in 1911. I will also introduce some examples for the devastations of the Second World War outside Budapest.
Diary of labour serviceman Dr. Endre Szántó
The 230th Article of the Act II of 1939 provided for the labour service of public interest, which ordered the obligation to male residents of Hungarian citizenship who were unfit for military service and had reached the age of twenty-four. The training provided within the military framework had to be completed in labour camps for persons specified by law, and the duration of service was set at three months a year. The first labour battalions began their work in July 1939, so by the end of the summer of 1940 it became clear that the incompetence was not interpreted by the legislature in terms of physical health, but by origin and political reliability. The decree is thus difficult to interpret other than the supplement to Jewish laws.
Divine “vaccines” - Wonderful memories of 18th-century folk religiousness
For several months, the focus has been on what new vaccines are being developed nationally and globally, which of them have received official approval, and what types of vaccines have just arrived in Hungary. The virtual exhibition of the Piarist Museum, would like to give a taste of an age, when people could not yet trust in modern medicine or the professional pharmaceutical industry, where vaccinations did not yet exist, through the special memorabilia preserved in its collection.
Do you know what ’Zserbó’ is? The Vörösmarty’s maiden name
Zserbó, either it is classical or as my granny makes it at Easter, at Christmas, at birthdays. Briefly, anytime. Which came first: the goody filled with jam and walnut or the confectionery? You can find it out this week.
Do you want to play?
The history of toys is older that humanity, because mammals, mostly young animals can attend to an object that they promote to a toy for a long time. Toys were present in the ancient times and several relics remained from the period of first human civilisations. They were mainly models of adults’ everyday objects, arms or dolls and animal statuettes. They served and still serve as tools for roleplays: children can play the adults’ world with them. But let’s not go so far in the past, just 100-150 years ago.
Dunaújváros under construction
The notion of socialist city is related to the notion of industrial city closely. However, it was not easy to transform cities and adapt them to the new ideological system. Nevertheless, new industrial cities served as the socialist city type of the future – or rather, they could have served.
Endre Szász’s life – Master of book illustrations and porcelain panels
Endre Szász was an extremely versatile artist of the 20th century and had outstanding effects on fine arts. He was a painter, a graphic artist and a visual designer, a fashion and jewel designer, a porcelain painter and a master that lifted book illustration onto artistic levels. By favour of the Rippl-Rónai Museum of Kaposvár, an important graphic collection of Szász’s special artworks can be found in our database in digital format. We are going to study his adventurous life related to that.
Equestrian statues in Budapest
In the arts, the relationship between horses and men dates back to a rich past, as horses have always occupied a special place in the lives of our ancestors. They meant much more than other farm animals, think of the legendary horses of our myths. As the construction of these monuments requires a great deal of expertise and a lot of money, the clients always asked the most talented artists for the task, it was no different in Hungary either.
Esterházy Castle, the „Hungarian Versailles”
The castle of Fertőd is the most impressive baroque castle in Hungary. Its construction began in 1720 according to the plans of Anton Erhard Martinelli, commissioned by József Esterházy. However, its heyday was in the time of Prince Miklós (the Bright) Esterházy. The castle was the musical centre of the period and the site of magnificent balls. In addition to its significance in music history - Haydn spent almost two decades in the service of the Prince - it is also unique architecturally. This week, the history of the castle comes to life.
Eucharistic World Congress in Budapest
The 52nd International Eucharistic Congress, which starts this week, will be held in Budapest this year, but this is not the first time that the historical event is held in our capital. In our selection this week, we recall the first Hungarian Congress of 1938, and also bring to life a little of the history of the event. Where was the first pilgrimage held? Which city's withdrawal helped Budapest win the organizing of the event? In our latest article, you can get answers to these questions, among other things.
Evolution of household appliances
Housekeeping is an ‘obligatory’ task, which could be rather burdening before the birth of the modern household. Our current virtual exhibition gives a short overview of the development how washing by hand was replaced by washing machines, mangle was changed by flat iron or sewing by hand gave place to sewing machines.
Ex libris means bookplate, a small multiplied graphic work pasted into the book, on the inside front cover, identifying the book owner. Typically, it contains the owner’s name or a symbol that refers to them or their gratifications. According to its original function, it identified the library where the book belonged to. Lots of graphic artists undertake creating bookplates even today, so the art-historical significance of ex libris labels is indisputable. The first bookplates decorated the books of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey and those of Willibald Pirckheimer. Pirckheimer’s bookplate was etched by Albrecht Dürer himself, who excelled both in wood-cutting and copperplate engraving techniques. Not surprisingly, ex libris – as a tiny work of art- became the object of collections in the course of time. Some proportion of them never gets into books, but remains stock of barter for collectors.
Fabulous picture postcards
The picture postcard is the descendant of the postcard without doubt. But who invented it and when – opinions are split about these questions. It was in 1865 when the thought of mailing by an open card without an envelope emerged on a mail congress. It was obvious, because the majority of mails contained only felicitations and simple greetings. So why should you waste expensive letter-paper if you wanted to greet your loved-ones?
Fairies in Zugliget – Children's sanatorium of Margit Révész
Margit Révész was a pioneer in the medical profession, choosing this career at a time when the road was not paved for women yet. In 1911, the child psychologist doctor founded her special education sanatorium, a residential institution in the forest of Zugliget. Our writing examines the life of doctor Révész and the children’s sanatorium, as it was called at the time, the story of “Sani”.
Family genres of peasant culture
From an ethnographic point of view, the family is the smallest social unit, its members being linked by blood ties and marriage. It was originally a patriarchal system, i.e. the senior male head of the family had control over the family's affairs and properties. There are small and large families, depending on the number of generations living under one roof, but the term family most often refers to the nuclear family, which is a community of parents and children.
They have been living close to us for about 10 thousand years. The earliest proof of humans and cats’ coexistence was found on Cyprus in a ca. 9,500 year-old tomb. Besides the human skeleton and smaller and bigger articles for personal use, the remains of a cat were also found. Cats are not autochthonous on the island; they might have arrived from the continent, probably from the area of the ’fertile crescent’, where domestication of cats must have happened first.
For Saint Nicholas day
The Hungarian name Miklós (and the English Nicholas) comes from the Greek name Nikolaos, its original meaning: triumph + people. Its registered versions separated from the ancient Hungarian nickname: Miksa, Mike, Mikes, Mikó and Nikolasz that was taken from English. Miklós was the 76th most frequented male name in Hungary in 2016. 136 children got it as a first name, but the English-sounding Nikolasz was more popular, 169 little boys got it.
Forgotten monastery and church ruins
It is always impressive when one encounters a forgotten ruin while hiking. A slightly foundered sidewall, a Gothic window frame, an elaborated chapiter in the grass, and a forest that, while guarding the ruins from uninitiated visitors, also destroys it. This week we are visiting abandoned church and monastery ruins, from Bükkszentlélek to Nagyvázsony.
Forint turned 70 this year
The prices of wheat and bread are increasing. The prices of feed, meat, milk and egg are increasing as well. The price of cold cuts is 10 forints higher than it was last week. The hail damage in fruiteries will cause shortage in apricot, plum and sour-cherry on the market, on the shelves, in the bottle, or they will be spoilt. Inflation – the depreciation of money – can be influenced by a lot of factors. The slow inflation can be felt by everybody, but the existence of it is important economically. But what did people feel, just after surviving the Second World War, when they had to face the chaos of hyperinflation?
Frigyes Feszl 200
During his lifetime, he made so many plans and tenders, sometimes in associations, sometimes individually; some of them were rewarded, yet his ideas did not materialize, other buildings were built, but they are no longer visible today. The most significant work of his oeuvre received a mixed reception among both contemporary architects and the citizens of Pest, and after the completion of the building, he did not receive major assignments any more. Despite all this, we can respect him as one of the most original personalities of Hungarian and even European romantic architecture. We remember Frigyes Feszl, who was born 200 years ago.
From Baradla to Suba Hole - A brief overview of caving in Hungary
Our country abounds in caves, whose mysteriousness and the spectacularity of their stalactite and rock formations, sometimes mineral outcrops and prehistoric remains make them an attractive tourist destination. The history of cave exploration in Hungary goes back several centuries, and our exhibition is going to look at the main stages in the history of caving, with a special focus on the most famous Hungarian cave, the World Heritage-listed Baradla, located in Aggtelek National Park.
From Bridge Society to Chain Bridge
Every bridge of the Danube has world fame because of its beauty, especially the Chain Bridge. Not surprisingly the famous guide-book of author Antal Szerb – A Martian’s Guide to Budapest – also starts from here. The Széchenyi Chain Bridge is the first permanent stone bridge over the Danube in Hungary. Its construction was preceded by fierce debates and a long awaiting time; it was finished by 1849 finally. The irony of fate is that the man who did the most for the bridge could never use it – because István Széchenyi spent his last years at the mental asylum of Döbling.
From Brunszvik to Montessori - Two centuries of Hungarian nursery schools
We already take for granted that kindergartens are one of the most important socialisation scenes for children between the ages of three and seven. However, this has not always been the case, as nurseries - places where children are kept and looked after by professionals during the day - have existed for nearly two hundred years. In our exhibition, we look at how this process has evolved and, in particular, at the women who, through their philanthropic attitude and perseverance, have brought these institutions into being and kept them running.
From computing centres to informatics encompassing everything
The 52-year-old Neumann Computer Society is uploading their panels introducing their first 50 years, the illustrating videos of their IT museum, photos of works and the video portraits of their IT historical data store into our database. Working together provides an opportunity for getting to know the oldest Hungarian information society better, and looking into the museum of old computers as well.
From noodles with poppy seed to vegetable stew - Memories from the canteen
Almost everyone has memories of the school feeding and cafeterias: of favourite dishes whose longed-for flavour is still unreproducible, or of dishes that we never want to taste again in our lives. The queues, the plastic trays, the waxed linen tablecloths, the mixed essence of food in the air all evoke nostalgic feelings; the pictures in our exhibition are an attempt to evoke them, with a little canteen history in addition.
From Rome with love
Some people arrive there amorously and some fall in love there, with Rome mostly. What is the secret of the eternal city? It is pulsating but still so constant at the same time. Its air is so soft and thick that you feel an unexplainable hunger for getting to know it or seizing some of it. It shows a lot, but gives you little. Actually, it rather takes away, a piece of your heart certainly.
From self-service to fast food restaurants
Short lunch-time, half portions, street food – are they familiar? The transformation of our eating habits did not start yesterday. The traditional way of eating is often confined to the time of feasts, due to lack of time. How did the special system of self-service units reach our country, and what was the first Hungarian fast food restaurant chain like? This week, we are going to be nostalgic again, but don’t start browsing with an empty stomach.
From the cabbages of Vecsés to the cucumbers of Nagykőrös - our pickled vegetables
Consuming pickled vegetables is part of our eating habits; there are those who make it themselves, there are those who get it from pickles sellers. Sauerkraut is still one of the most important sources of vitamins in winter, and summer is not real without sour cucumber fermented in the window. Their role in a healthy diet is undisputed and their strong aroma and sour taste is adored by many, less so by others.
From the reindeer bone to the skating rink
It is a winter sport that can be done even without snow, and you can do it in the city-centre as well. You don’t need any special qualifications to do it; all you need is some courage, some experience and maybe some company. It is the ice-skating. Budapest and other major towns offer a lot of skating opportunities, but the most obvious solution when you take a fancy for skating is the City Park Ice Rink.
From the sandlot to monkey bars - the history of playgrounds in Budapest
One of the favourite places of our childhood, with many adventurous stories and even more bruised-knee memories. Spherical-, rocket-shape, kitten-shape monkey bars, metal slide, squirrel wheel, concrete table tennis – the children of the second half of the 20th century recall them all with deep emotion. But what were the first playgrounds like in the capital, and when did they start to fungate? Here comes our overview on the history of playgrounds in Budapest.
G. B. Göz and engravings of Hungarian saints in Augsburg
One of the most significant fortresses of engraving publication in Central Europe in the 18th century was Augsburg, so it is no wonder that many graphic magazines depicting Hungarian saints were also published here. Several family copper-engraving dynasties (Kilian, Küsel, Rugendas, Heiss, Klauber) were established in the city, who developed their techniques and enriched the form treasure of art through generations. But the demand in engravings may have turned even so famous mural- and oil picture painters towards the reproduced graphic process as e.g. Gottfried Bernhard Göz. In addition to the artist's engravings in the Piarist Museum, our virtual exhibition also presents sacred pictures of Hungarian saints engraved by the Augsburg masters working with him.
Gáspár Fábián, the church builder
„What about you, Mr. Fabian?! You decorate all your tasks with a tower!" Indeed, Gáspár Fábián is best known as a church builder, and as his autobiographical memoirs show, his dear teacher Virgil Nagy had already noticed his attraction in this direction during his university years. His most significant legacies are the Church of the Holy Cross on Üllői Road, the Holy Family in Szondi Street, St. Vincent de Paul on Haller Square, or the Ottokár Prohászka Memorial Church in Székesfehérvár. This week we are going to revive the oeuvre of Dr. Gáspár Fábián.
Gems of Keszthely and Pécs – Historical rural hotels of Hungary
Special, unique, inimitable. I would characterise Hungarian hotels with such defining adjectives. I am thinking not only of newer architectural masterpieces, but rather of their much older predecessors. 100 years ago, they created catering buildings that embarrassed their descendants, which still attract attention even today with their detailed elaboration. Keszthely and Pécs have perhaps the most special and long-established hotels among the rural cities of Hungary.
Go to Upper Hungary!
Loyalty and treason, strictly in Kuruc nostalgic mood, no matter in war or in love, they are almost the same. This week, we are roaming in Upper Hungary, introducing Krasznahorka, Lőcse, Bajmóc and Pozsony.
Go west! – The little history of Hungarian hiking
Probably, everybody longs for getting away from crowded cities to go out to the greenery, where you can take your heels on the never-ending countryside. For numberless tourist paths, into the nature, for lying in the grass, for fresh air, where you can nibble your picnic provisions – and of course you take back the litter to the city refuse bins. A hundred years ago, the situation was the same: people have always longed for being in the lap of nature – especially since urbanisation accelerated.
Gone-by New Year’s Eves
The last day of the year is always full of expectations, because the New Year might keep so many things: long-forgotten dreams, resolutions, bucket lists turn up and it is also a good feeling to close down and make an account of your achievements reached so far. A wide palette of traditions is related to the New Year’s Eve. According to superstitions, it is that time when you can do the most for your success in the New Year.
Grassalkovich, the Capuchins and the wonderworker Virgin Mary - pilgrimage in Máriabesnyő
Máriabesnyő is one of the best-known pilgrimage sites in Hungary, with the Basilica of the Assumption of Our Lady as its main attraction. Legend has it that in the 18th century, during the construction of the church, a statue of Mary was found, which made the village a place of pilgrimage. Count Antal Grassalkovich created the ecclesiastical complex around which the village was built, which has been part of Gödöllő since 1965, and today the two parts of the town are fully integrated.
Greetings from Lillafüred
Lillafüred is located in the eastern part of the Bükk Mountains, along Lake Hámori, at the confluence of the Szinva and Garadna streams. The part of the settlement belonged to Hámor until 1950, since then it is one of the highest parts of Miskolc. The touristic significance of the district is outstanding, although the vast majority of our spas are based on medicinal water; Lillafüred is our oldest climatic resort. With the construction of the Palace Hotel, not only a hotel suitable for holding representative events was created, but also grandiose landscaping works took place, during which, the Szinva stream was diverted to a new watercourse.
Greetings from the „Calvinist Rome”!
“I do not know the circumstances that led to the establishment of Debrecen, but I cannot explain what could have induced thirty thousand people to choose a dwelling place where they have no springs, no rivers, no fuels and no building materials… ”The famous Englishman of the 18th century, traveller and natural scientist Robert Townson (1762–1827) put his impressions on paper during his European tour of Debrecen. His sentences are particularly interesting in light of the fact that the settlement was already known as a very rich city at that time. This week we will recall the glorious past of Debrecen with a virtual walk.
Greetings from the city of hard coal
The name of Komló has merged with coal mining; its heyday was during the 1950s as a socialist industrial city. In fact, mining started in the 18th century here, but the town got into the limelight when the furnace of Dunaújváros started to be built. Because they found suitable quality coking coal here, after a long search. What was the town like then? Allegedly, three things were never lacking meat, alcohol and hookers. We are dealing with the history of the city and miners’ life this week.
Gyula Juhász and his correspondents
Dear Readers, What novelty could be written about Gyula Juhász that you do not know yet? That Anna was not quite eternal? That this young man from Szeged was terrified in his whole life that he would become dement due to his imaginary syphilis, while he should have worried about his depression? The writer of these lines can only hope that you will not find these lines debunking and will read them with pleasure.
Gyula Meinl’s coffee
Julius Meinl I opened his first small shop in Vienna in 1862 and began to expand very quickly in other countries of the Monarchy, including Hungary. The prosperous company tried to adapt to the customs of the countries, so Julius Meinl became Gyula Meinl. This week, we are inviting you into the world of commerce again; the history of the Meinl company comes to life.
Hamburg - a port of pirates and merchants
Hamburg is Germany's second largest city with nearly 1.8 million inhabitants and is an autonomous city-state. Situated at the mouth of the Elbe estuary, 110 km from the sea, it is Europe's third busiest port after Rotterdam and Antwerp. A settlement and an ancient port were already established on the site in the 9th century. Over the centuries, it has become an important trading centre, hence the name 'Gateway to the World'.
Hilton Hotel Budapest
It is a widespread legend that János Kádár decided, on the terrace of the Intercontinental, to have the first Eastern European Hilton built in the Castle District. At that time, the Hilton contract already existed, under which the hotel would have been built entirely in accordance with Hilton standards, but the Hungarian state would remain the owner. The design of the building was not an unanimous success, with critics complaining that the hotel would destroy the harmonious silhouette of the Castle Hill. Find out what challenges the architects faced and read our latest selection of hospitality history.
Historical guided tour in the „Most Beautiful Café of the World”
Despite experiencing many ages and historical changes, the New York Café, which dates back more than 125 years, awaits its guests with unbroken enthusiasm even today. Its popularity and beauty is evidenced by the fact that in 2011 it was elected the most beautiful café in the world, and in 2013 the hotel won the Hotel of the Year award. In our review, you can read the history of the café, the legends associated with it, and it also sheds light on what the “dog tongue” might be.
History locked in glass: from aurulent plate photos to grey glass negatives
Although it is natural now that you can take a photo in seconds, you rarely think about how rugged road led to quick photography and to the possibility of making good-quality photos. In the beginning, the incipient accomplishments achieved by inventors were considered as sensations, but later, the occurring deficiencies, new demands and fortunate circumstances resulted in the development of methods. At the dawn of photography, the invention of the silver-plated copper method as well as the glass plate negatives were regarded as an important milestone.
History of an ironmonger family
The former building of the ironware store is still one of the most beautiful apartment palaces of Üllői Road, but you can hardly notice it when walking in the street. You can see an inscription on top of the house “Heinrich Court” and a neon sign “Ironware”, which preserve the past of the commercial house as a memento. This week, the family Heinrich’s story revives, which is actually the chronicle of a firm that prospered during five generations.
History of lighting technology
“The tirelessly searching human mind that can never rest has found the method with which it can outsoar the light of the inaccessible “sun” that allows it to conjure fairy light from dark skies and created daylight from the night. And all these immortal achievements have been reached by electricity that has been peeked and riddled from the secrets of nature.” – Kiskunhalas, 1898. Our weekly exhibition is going to guide you into the world of the development history of lighting technology, with the aid of archive photos from our database.
History of nursing from Zsuzsanna Kossuth to Ilona Andrássy
In the 19th century, the history of patient care underwent a huge change, one of the main drivers of which was the improvement of the state of military nursing. Florence Nightingale was one of the most important implementers of these reforms. In Hungary, Zsuzsanna Kossuth is considered the founder of the nursing profession. The fate of the two women is similar: they were contemporaries and the storms of history deployed their commitment to nursing. Their mission remains an important pillar of the profession even today.
History of soft drinks
The rich water-supply of Hungary is legendary. Hungarians have the possibility of both swimming in waters and consume them. We are going to study the history of beneficial mineral waters and the soda-water – its maiden name was ‘szikvíz’ that means ’alkaline-water’ – and that of soft drinks made by the socialist industry.
History of the Blue Ribbon Regatta on Lake Balaton
In Hungary, sailing was considered an aristocratic luxury initially. At the end of the 1700s, György Festetics was the first to invite his royal guests to sail to Lake Balaton on his sailing boat called Phönix. Later, in 1866, thanks to the tabloid news that Elisabeth of Austria would spend the summer in Balatonfüred, the desire to sail revived. The magnates brought sailboats to Lake Balaton and renewed the infrastructure around the lake to provide the queen with entertainment.
The favourite confection of us all: we flavour our tea with it, spread it on bread, make cookies with it and use it for healing our sore throats. This is honey. You would not think that people in Hungary did apiary already a thousand year ago and partly due to that, a lot of folk beliefs and customs are related to apiculture. Our current article is about them, illustrated with ethnographic thematic records, apicultural and gingerbread tools from our database.
Hop Little Bunny
During the Easter period, the characteristic motifs of the feast – the egg, the lamb and the rabbit – always come into the limelight. Symbols that remained from pagan fertility rituals get on well with the Christian traditions and ceremonies. The Easter Bunny is very popular, but it is not the only famous rabbit. Let’s recall the bunny heroes of our childhood, without entirety, and let’s get to know real rabbits better as well.
In the beginning of the 20th century, it was already common knowledge that coffee trade is a profitable business. Coffee trader Henrik Fábri, returning from his journeys in England and the Far East, heard the call of tourism and wanted to establish a modern hotel next to the Western Railway Station (Nyugati pályaudvar) in Budapest. Our current virtual exhibition is introducing you the story of Hotel Béke, or by its maiden name: Hotel Britannia.
How not to feel cold in winter?
Cold weather has arrived, the quivering one. Now you can choose between huddling up against your sweetheart, your little pet or putting your warmest clothes. The road while people got from animals’ fur to faux fur and from hand-made hats to machine-knitted hats was long enough. To our actual selection, cardigans, fur-coats and muffs provide suitable temperature.
How were the once famous Hungarian hemp products made?
According to Iván Balassa’s disputed theory, Hungarians knew and grew hemp even before the conquest (9th century). Besides ropes and strings, they made accessory elements of clothes, like belts, from hempen fibre. This theory seems to be backed up by the fact that the Hungarian word “kender” is a loanword of ancient Turkish origin from the period before the Hungarian conquest. It is certain that indigenous Slavs in the Carpathian Basin already cultivated it in waterside settlements before the conquest.
Imagine that you are in 1970 and you take the tram in Lenin Boulevard (Teréz and Erzsébet Boulevards today) on a grey autumn day. What could be more relaxing after a tiring day than watching the neon signs sweeping by: Röltex, Patyolat, Ofotért, Orion, Közért. Many people have written about the development story of Hungarian brands and the adverts related to them. Some of them were forgotten long ago, but there are some that sound familiar still today. Now, we have gathered a couple in order to feel nostalgia without remorse.
Hungarian eastern – Stories of the outlaw
At the beginning of the 18th century, a new ’profession’ appeared on the Hungarian wasteland: the outlaw. They had a great influence on the culture history and the folk art of the period and later until today, inspiring folk art motives, folk songs and folk ballads. The role of footpads is still debated: were they Hungarian ‘Robin Hoods’, or just over-estimated criminals?
Hungarian razzle music history
This week, we are going on the razzle; that means we are evoking – with the aid of our database photos – how Hungarians enjoyed themselves in the past centuries, sometimes in delight, sometimes in sorrow. The Hungarian song and ‘gypsy music’ are almost synonyms, in addition, the most famous songwriters and musicians, virtuosos are gypsies. In our short music history, we are examining how this interaction developed, how the song become an entertaining genre – rooted in Hungarian folk music and heated by the romantic nationalism of the Reform Age.
Hungarian winter expelling festival, Busó-walking of Mohács
The oldest and most famous winter expelling carnival of Hungary – called ‘busó –walking’ of Mohács – is starting today. About 800 busós and 200 maskers are going to take their farewells of winter. The ‘busó-walking’ is a world-famous folk tradition of the Sokác (Croatian: Šokci) population in Mohács. The winter expelling and spring welcoming tradition can be found in the mythological world of other countries as well. It belongs to the family of protecting and fertility spell feasts.
Hygge, lagom, sisu – What do you need for happiness?
Preparations spent in festive ambiance are ahead of the weeks before Christmas, which does not necessarily means buying presents. In this period, you fire lights, tea lights, and candles in your home according to your taste; you are seduced by cookies easier; you chat with your friends with a mug of cinnamon flavoured tea or mulled wine in your hand, or read a book at home, or visit a Christmas fair.
I enjoy the beach so much…
Our gallery of the end of June reflects the actual general feeling: get out of the office and let’s go to the beach! There are plenty of opportunities to do that in Hungary: beaches of Lake Balaton and Lake Velence, Palatinus Lido in Margaret Island. We are giving a bit of heartache and show you free-minded people splashing around in the water or sunbathing, eating ice cream or watermelon on the beach.
IBUSZ, because travelling is fun
Organised tourism is a relatively new activity, founded by Thomas Cook, who established the great-tradition Cook Travel Agency in 1845. Tourism has a rich history, of course, as good guides have been in demand since ancient times. In our current selection, we focus on IBUSZ, a major player in the Hungarian tourism industry.
Ice on the top
Many of us may think it is odd that people walked or even elected a king on the top of the ice on the Danube during the past centuries, but in those times it was not rare. Nowadays, the congelation of the river is almost unimaginable. There are several reasons for that, but the most important one is the river control
Ignác Alpár, master of late historicism
Ignác Alpár was one of the outstanding architects of historicism at the turn of the century. He worked in almost every architectural genre, but without doubt, one of the highlights of his career was the Historical Main Group of the Millennium Exhibition, the building complex known as the Vajdahunyad Castle in the City Park. It is no coincidence that he is also regarded as a "bank building specialist", as his career took off by designing buildings such as the Tőzsdepalota (Stock Exchange Palace) on Szabadság Square. In our latest selection, we look back at the stories of some of his famous buildings.
Ikarus - NABI success story, an excellent example of 'blue ocean strategy'
Once, Ikarus was one of the biggest bus manufacturer companies in the world, which reached its production peak in 1984, with more than 13 thousand vehicles produced. Ikarus 260 is among the world’s top-selling buses with 75,547 manufactured buses. With its success stories, it set a good example to the corporate sector in how you can compete with real value-profile development that daringly differs from the narrow-minded competition that focuses on rivals and operates with petty modifications.
The past of Vienna merged with the Hungarian history inseparably. It was a symbol of suppression and of liberty as well. This week, we are guiding you to the imperial city; with a gastro panorama and the Sacher cake, and the inevitable Advent market, but the famous Viennese sights cannot be skipped either.
In Gothic mood in Budapest
Architects of buildings that bear the style marks of ancient periods, who constructed buildings in a style that was considered anachronistic in Budapest around the turn of the century, could not even presume that their creations would become the emblematical symbols of the city and would attract a spate of tourists from all over the world.
In purple and velvet - cloths in folk culture
In winter, one of the most practical clothing accessories is a shawl, which can be worn as a scarf around the neck, or worn on the shoulder, covering your back or covering your head. Shawls play a key role in Hungarian folk costumes. They were tied to the head, neck and shoulders in different, sometimes particularly complex variations from region to region. Their pattern, colour, and material also show a wide variety depending on whether they are intended for casual or festive wear.
Indiana Jones on the Hungarian wasteland
Is there anybody who as a child did not think about becoming an archaeologist? Or played treasure hunt or admired Indiana Jones? Archaeology includes the excitement of exploration and the quenchless human thirst for searching the past. Our database contains many photos in the topic of archaeology, from fieldwork to object photos. Our current virtual exhibition was composed by them. Moreover, the 3D models of findings can be taken in your hands and turned over virtually.
Invoking the past of Siófok – postcards, stories and news long ago
Intermezzos, scandals, reports on activities of rich artists, period crimes, adverse weather – just a couple of examples from the news articles related to Siófok once. In our weekly virtual exhibition, we have selected old postcards and stories connected to the capital of Balaton.
István Bethlen and the importance of the Bethlen-government
Count István Bethlen was one of the key politicians of the Horthy era, who managed to achieve during his decade as prime minister that Hungary, battered by the Trianon tragedy, was strengthened both economically and socially. This week, on the 75th anniversary of his death, we commemorate his life, merits, and the government he constituted a hundred years ago.
József Hild, a classicist master of the reform era
The family Hild, who lived in Hungary, came from Bohemia. Almost all the men in the family excelled in the field of architecture, but there is no doubt that József Hild became the best known, who defined the image of Pest during the reform period with the buildings he designed; what a pity that we cannot admire many of them anymore. By his father’s early death, his mother inherited his father’s master rights, and the young Hild officially worked for Klára Hild. How busy he was showed well that he presented his masterpiece only twenty-seven years later — although by that time the rigid guild regulations had eased — and finally, citing his oeuvre, he was awarded the master rights in 1843. By this time, buildings such as the Tänzer House, which still stands today, or Lloyd's Palace enhanced his fame. The most significant works of his oeuvre will come to life this week.
Kádár cubes, blocks of houses in the countryside
The cube house, tent-roofed house or “Kádár-kocka” is a house type that dominates the image of almost every settlement, from small villages to the capital. In a relatively short time, it became an architectural factor and a social historical memento. Built mostly in the 1960s and 1970s, the "cubes" are now energetically obsolete and can be a source of unpleasant surprises, but a complete renovation can make them almost new again.
Kálmán Darnay’s workroom
An old, slightly faded, black and white photograph that tells tales about the man and his objects. You can see Kálmán Darnay in the photo. It was taken in his workroom at his desk. The objects on his desk are all his beloved documents and requisites that you can view at the permanent exhibition of the Kisfaludy Memorial House (Sümeg).
Keep out moustache, here comes the beard
The beard is the fur that grows on men’s faces. It covers the lower part of the face and the chin; it can even reach the neck. The area between the mouth and the nose is called a moustache. The beard had crucial functions even in the prehistoric ages. It kept the face warm, protected the mouth from dirt and it also frightened away enemies. During history, it was the symbol of masculinity and potency. It also represented and still represents a kind of coherency among men wearing a beard. Jowls can be found on certain mammals too: for example dogs, goats.
Similarly to gates, keys have important metaphoric meanings; either it is about things of key importance, key figures or the key of solution. Besides using them as metaphors, different kinds of keys play key roles in engineering and technical aspects in our culture as well: limiting unauthorized access, protecting the private sphere, and they also allow us to close up or hide things. Although modern keys are not as decorative as their medieval peers were, they are just as essential as their “ancestors” were, regarding functionality.
Ferenciek Square owes its present form to the regulation of downtown Pest, but even more so to the construction of the Erzsébet Bridge. It is unfortunate that the narrow, winding little streets, the old city hall of Pest and many shops on Kígyó Square also fell victim to such a large-scale plan. However, the bridge needed a road to divert traffic to it. This is how the image of the square, which is the structural centre of the capital, changed at the turn of the century, and so new buildings were born, such as the Klotild palaces that still dominate the square.
Knightly armours, crowns, lions and naked swords: the origin of the theme world of blazons
As of ancient times, members of human communities have aspired to show somehow their belonging to a relational, ethnic, religious group, or their status in the group. The appearance of blazons can be related mostly to the tradition of making personal emblems and seals, which goes back to the Bronze Age. Using a strategic identifier as a sign spread in the era of knights in the 12th century. In the beginning, it was necessary due to military technological reasons.
There is no settlement without a Kossuth statue, street or square in Hungary. According to Erzsébet Reznák, director of the Kossuth Museum of Cegléd, his bronze or stone statue is the most frequent sculpture type that stands on public places. Where does his first public statue stand, and why is the city of Cegléd so special? This week’s assortment unveils the answers.
Lake Velence, the lake of sunshine
After the gastro-tour at Balaton, we are wandering towards another frequented summer destination. Lake Velence became a popular touristic centre primarily because of its nearness and its slowly-deepening sandy beaches. The lake was not always this gentle and peaceful, at the beginning of the 20th century its surface was hardly visible due to the thick reed. The area was threatened by becoming a moorland, and by floods and drying as well. Fortunately, none of these dangers menace today, all you have to do is enjoy the lukewarm water and the fine sand under your soles.
Largest department store – largest selection - Corvin
An attractive meeting point for some, the modern-age temple of consumption for others, a real monster that incorporates people, inciting their thirst for possessing. The malls that is to say western-type shopping centres spread after the change of regime; until then, department stores had had the main role in Hungary. In their heydays, there was the Úttörő (Pioneer), the Verseny (Competition) and later the Skála (Scale) and the Centrum (Centre). The first Hungarian department store, which could be only a distant cousin of the main character of our exhibition, was already built for our demand of shopping everything at the same place. Let’s see how their story went.
Legend of the Christmas tree
The resin scent of the Christmas tree and the stinging pine needles during decoration are determinant memories of our childhood. In the 1990s, plastic pines spread and nowadays there are different environmentally friendly creative solutions to replace pine trees with branches and pallets. However, the classical sawn trees or the living pines are the most popular. In our virtual exhibition, we are going to find out why the pine tree became the indispensable accessory of Christmas.
Legendary confectioneries – the Caflisch
It is interesting how much confectioneries played a significant role in the life of a city, and not only in the capital. Their stories are very similar: usually it starts with an inventive and ambitious man, and after his early death, agile wives take over control and build such a reputation to the business that the whole world admire it. The Caflisch of Pécs was not an exception either, and you can get familiar with the confectionery legend of Pécs this week.
Legendary confectioneries – the Hauer
I remember that the shop-window of confectionery Hauer on Rákóczi Road preserved its upper middle class feature even when it was faded and abandoned. Many times and many authors wrote about the Rákóczi Road: how it lost its pedestrian nature, after the construction of the underground and the disappearance of the tramway. In its present form, it is rather a highway, especially between Keleti railway terminal and Blaha Lujza Square. Who would like to ambulate and watch shop-windows beside such a busy road? In fact, there is not much to see indeed. However, its heyday was not very long ago; it was considered a real commercial centre in the 1970s – just think about the department stores Verseny, Csillag, Lottó, and Corvin. However, its earlier golden age was after the inauguration of Keleti (eastern) railway terminal in 1884, when apartment palaces, tenement houses, restaurants, hotels and confectioneries were built one after the other. This week we are evoking the history of confectionery Hauer, the emblematic place on Rákóczi Road.
Legendary confectioneries – the Megay’s
If the confectionery in Miskolc could have a centre, where the best confectionery shops in the city operated, it was Széchenyi Street. Not surprisingly, as it was the easiest to lure passers-by in the main street to the store for some goodies. Especially if you could get a mouth-watering dessert that even Archduke Joseph praised. The success of Megay Confectionery could not be broken even by an accidental gas explosion; this week we’ll take a look at the history of this legendary confectionery.
Legendary confectioneries – the Ruszwurm
There is a street in the Buda Castle, where you can find both beautiful things to see and delicious things to eat. The confectionery is a listed monument and its supply is legendary. The latest part of our series is introducing the Ruszwurm confectionery.
Legendary railway carriages
George Stephenson would be amazed that his invention rather drifts than sweeps nowadays, just think about the magnetic levitation train Maglev. Inventing the steam engine caused a serious change, – not only in transport – because it created a new way of perceiving space and time, as the notions of distance and time of travelling changed at the same time. Stephenson’s locomotive was received with strong doubts. People thought its flame might put houses on fire, while others just thought that it was a machine pulled by the devil. Our current virtual exhibition brings back the nostalgia of famous railway carriages that ran in Hungary as well.
Legendary Restaurants - Apostolok
Is it sacrilege that the first thing that comes to mind about the apostles is not twelve men but a restaurant in Budapest for many people? Maybe. The Apostles (Apostolok) restaurant and pub may be a profane place, but there was something sublime about it. Perhaps it was the pious apostles' faces above the dimly lit boxes that made you feel as if you had entered a chapel, where even the beer foamed in a solemn atmosphere. The first in our series (Legendary Restaurants) that is still in operation today, though a co-tenant with another legend, the Ice Buffet.
Legendary restaurants - Kárpátia
Although the legendary restaurant was only given the telling name of Kárpátia in the 20th century, it was already a catering establishment when the rental palace used as a venue was built. The Spolarich family, who ran several restaurants in Budapest in the 20th century, can be linked to the heyday of the restaurant. In this part of our series, we are going to tell the story of the Kárpátia.
Legendary restaurants - the Gundel
Hospitality history is too big a bite, especially when it comes to the history of restaurants like Gundel. For a long time, the restaurant was synonymous with hospitality and catering, from which not only legendary dishes but also a dynasty was born. Its heyday is connected to Károly Gundel, whose vision gave birth to a Hungarian restaurant style that catered to everyone's needs.
Legendary restaurants - the Mátyás Cellar
Mátyás Baldauf opened his restaurant in 1904, after the construction of the Erzsébet Bridge, on the Kéményseprő Street side of a tenement house on Eskü Square, under the name Mátyás Pince (Matthias Cellar). The young Mátyás, a son of farm workers, first learned the trade of butcher and waiter at the age of 14, then went to the capital to try his luck. Find out how his restaurant became one of the most famous restaurants of Budapest and who it was named after in our latest selection of catering history.
Let it be red
Red is the first colour of the rainbow, a prime colour, which means that it cannot be created from other colours. If you mix red with yellow you get orange, with blue you get violet, which are secondary colours. When using graphics programs, you get the perfect red colour under the hexadecimal number #FF0000 or by giving the RGB value 255, 0, 0. But what kind of connotations do people associate to this colour?
Let us learn languages!
It is said that confessing your love and swearing feel the best in the mother tongue, but there are situations, when there would be a demand for them in a foreign language as well. When it comes to language learning, many people still think of memorising grammatical rules. Fortunately, nowadays you can easily make yourselves understood with the aid of your smart devices. What is more, the era when you can use a speech-to-speech translator such as the universal translator of the Star Trek universe is not far away either.
Let’s go camping!
The excitement of camping belongs to our most beautiful childhood experiences. Putting up the tent, nestling in, roasting bacon in the evening, fighting with mosquitos, listening to noises of the night, playing with the torch. If the weather is rainy, it makes the adventure even more exciting. Queuing at the bathroom or just simply having a bath in the lake.
Lifestyle images from the era of World War I
One of the biggest wars of world history was the First World War, in which 70 million soldiers participated, and it ended with the death of more than 15 million people and the re-division of the colonial- and interest systems of the period. In this week’s exhibition, we are introducing photos from the period of the World War I, selected mainly from the archives of the Hungarian Franciscan Library and Archives.
Little Italy in Bárdibükk – Mária Goszthony’s art
At the time of the emancipation movements of the 20th century, more and more female artists made their appearances, for example Mária Goszthony. Her creative activity and taste became one with her years spent in Italy inseparably. You can read about her life and oeuvre in our current composition. Owing to the Rippl-Rónai Megyei Hatókörű Városi Múzeum of Kaposvár, you can find her heritage in our database as well.
Local history tour in Újpest
In a few years, Újpest will celebrate the 200th anniversary of its foundation. From the grassland of Megyer, a thriving settlement grew in almost a decade, and by the turn of the century, it had become a major industrial town with a rapidly growing population, public transport, a well-developed infrastructure and a cultural life. In this exhibition, we will take a look at the art nouveau buildings of the turn of the century, which are still standing today, creating a special atmosphere in Újpest, from 1950 onward, in the 4th district of Budapest, dominated by the fast-growing housing estates.
Everyone likes winning, and probably even more likes playing. In our next selection, we are looking into the history of the sixty-year-old lottery. How we got to the modern lottery from the small games, from unlicensed gambling rooms to television broadcastings? The fluctuant prejudice of gambling still exists. While a class-draw was organized to fund the Millennial Exhibition in 1896, all forms of gambling were banned and kept in secret after the Second World War.
Lukács Bath, where Kodály conducted standing on a bench
The building complex of the Szent Lukács Thermal Bath already existed in the 18th century; however, we can talk about today's bath only since the mid-1880s. The Lukács is a concept not only for those who want to recover, but because of its atmosphere; prominent representatives from the world of artists have often turned up here. According to a Lukács legend, their regular guest, Zoltán Kodály was even allowed to swim in the zigzag there. This week, the story of the Lukács Bath comes to life.
Majk, where silence lived once
The domestic history of the Camaldolese monastic order in Majk began in the 1730s and is closely linked to the life of the Esterházy family. The Baroque monument complex, consisting of the monastery, seventeen cell houses and the church tower, is truly unique, as is the history of the family that owned the complex. In our latest selection, we recall the years of the Camaldolese order and the Esterházy family in Majk.
On the first day of the year, we celebrate the Virgin Mary and her divine motherhood. The veneration of Mary is entitled to special honours, and Marian shrines are privileged places of veneration. In our current selection, we make a pilgrimage to some of the shrines that are also famous in our country.
Vivid life on the market, enticing scents, piles of vegetables and fruits that either attract or deter you. Juicy gossips get on well with the market price of potatoes in this cavalcade, as well as the unmistakable voices of costers bargaining among rows with nosing chaps sneaking tiny goods. Our selection is going to show you not only the markets of Budapest, but also the rural ones: from the legendary Nagycsarnok (Great Hall) to the Vásárcsarnok (Market Hall) of Pécs.
Marlboro Man in the Eastern Bloc
Inhaling the smoke of tobacco leaves, which is often mentioned as ‘brown gold’, has a cultural history of about 5-7000 years. Smoke can be made by a pipe, a cigar, a cigarette or a nargile, but people consume tobacco in the form of taking snuff or maccabaw and chewing quid as well. How did smoking become an inevitable part of our cultural history? How did Hungary ascend to the top of tobacco industry and how did it vanish slowly? This short resume about the history of smoking is going to shed light on the questions.
Masterpieces from the golden age of banknote designing
Pengő and korona were regarded as real masterpieces with their special banknote designing solutions in artistic aspects. Beyond the meticulously elaborated patterns that reflect the sophisticated graphical-artistic culture of the period, their speciality is that their portraits show not only famous persons (like Sebestyén Tinódi Lantos) but also common people, for example Palóc girl from Bény Valéria Rudas, and Rózsi Tóth on the 5 pengő banknotes, or Lúcia Lendvay from Székesfehérvár, who posed on the 1 billion millpengő banknotes. Despite their anonymity, the persons of “money models” sometimes got into the focus of media and public interest.
Matriculation exam, what are you?
How can an examination make you an adult at one blow? Anyway, what does it mean to be mature? People tend to underestimate the final examinations just as many other things. “Come on, what is it?” – says somebody who did it a decade ago. This week, we are getting in nostalgic mood again. What kind of matriculation memories do you have?
May I sprinkle you? – Easter customs
Easter is considered to be the greatest holiday in the Christian world, however, due to the additional holidays and customs associated with it, we prefer to name this period as the Easter holiday circle. In addition to its biblical implications, it is also referred to as the Feast of Coming of Spring. Since there is no set date for the Easter holiday, it is related to the spring equinox, the first full moon that follows, and is therefore considered a moving holiday. In the frame of my writing, we take a brief look at biblical relevance and festive traditions.
Medieval skyscrapers - Gothic cathedral giants
In the Middle Ages, the main role of constructing thick walls was to hold the heavy roofing, which had a drawback: little natural light could enter in the buildings through the relatively small windows. Strangely, the Gothic architectural innovations that brought the role of light to the fore were not inspired by practical aspects primarily, but by theological views and the descriptions of the celestial city found in the Book of Revelation. It says that at the end of the world, a city will descend from heavens; a city with high walls decorated with colourful gemstones, which has golden roads, where the shining of divine glory will be seen.
Memories from the Ottoman-Turkish Era
After the Turkish occupation, under their subjection, the fate of the Hungarian Kingdom took a completely different direction, while the earlier Hungary was one of the most significant countries in Europe. The ultimate goal of all the Hungarian kings was to rule in a powerful and independent state, but after the occupation of Buda, only hope remained. During more than a hundred years, two great-power centres decided upon the future of Hungary: first in Istanbul and then in Vienna.
Memory of souls in folk culture
Every year, the holidays of early November make us slow down and turn inwards. On All Saints' Day and the Day of the Dead, we remember and cherish the memory of our deceased loved ones - by lighting candles, visiting cemeteries, tending and decorating their graves. What does Hungarian folklore say about this? What are the forgotten customs surrounding this period? This time our exhibition tells about it.
Miklós Ybl, the capital-letter master of historicism
Miklós Ybl is the most influential Hungarian master architect of the 19th century, who excelled with his talent since his youth. As a renowned architect, he exceeded his contemporaries with his extraordinary working capacity. He did not only work as a manager in his office, but also carried out, or at least supervised, almost all phases of the planning himself. The richness of genre of Ybl’s oeuvre shows how versatile creator he was. From tenement houses of Pest to the Opera House building and to the large-scale complex of the Castle Garden Bazaar, the image of Budapest is still defined by the greatest part of his work. In our latest selection, we pay tribute to his oeuvre.
More than 77 Hungarian folk tales
Everyone can remember the little bird that sings authentic Hungarian flower motives, for the melody of the Hungarian band Kaláka and the sound of flute in the theme song. You can also recollect Gyula Szabó’s tale-telling voice and ‘my tale’, which would have lasted longer if the 6-8-minute playing time had not finished.
Motif treasures of Sümeg – Potters’ heritage
The history of folk pottery and stove-making are highlighted parts in the past of Sümeg. Our medieval records of this date back to the period of Charles Robert I of Hungary.
Motorisation in Pécs – Gyula Varga’s car factory
Pécs was famous not only for the Zsolnay ceramics, but also for Gyula Varga’s car factory, though one can hardly hear about his merits. Our latest selection may offer an enjoyable reading to car lovers primarily. However, the photos of the family Varga revive an exciting period and naturally, you can have an insight into the life of a family as well.
Myths, legends and a bit of history – The second cup of coffee
This week we are having another dip in the coffee stream. In the first cup, there was a pinch of plantation, a dash of roasting and some fine grinding. Finally, we got a cup of hot drink with gentle taste with the aid of some hot water, according to our demands. Now, we are going to flick in the world of history and legends, brisked by the stimulant effect of coffee.
Travelling by a narrow-gauge railway, how exciting it is! It brings back all those pleasant experiences: an excursion in a forest or a journey on a special children’s railway, or pioneers’ railway for the older ones. This week, we give you a virtual ticket to Hungary’s different light trains. All aboard!
National Exhibition and Fair of Pécs in 1907
There was a feast in Pécs 110 years ago today, because the National Exhibition and Fair of Pécs in 1907 was organised on this very day. The expo that attracted almost a million visitors aimed to introduce the trade, agriculture, home industry and art of Hungary to the general public – according to its rules – and to strengthen the relationships between producers and consumers. It was not a well-known fact that the construction of a culture palace in Pécs depended on the incomes of the fair. Although the expo was successful, Pécs did not get the palace.
National memorial place from public cemetery
Cemeteries are not just places that can be interpreted on the emotional level of passing or mourning. There are graveyards that became pilgrimage destinations in the past decades, like the Házsongárdi of Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca), the Père-Lachaise of Paris, or the Fiumei Road Graveyard. This week, through the history of the latter, we are searching for the answer to the question ‘How it became a National Pantheon from a public cemetery?’
New bread and fireworks for the people
On 20th August, Hungarians have already celebrated St. Stephen, the new bread and even the new constitution. It is not surprising that feasts have their own lives too. Probably at their birth it is clear who or what event they are devoted to celebrate, but as time passes by, they are expanded with other senses of meaning or they become forgotten. Just imagine how King St. Ladislaus of Hungary would have been surprised if he had found himself among people celebrating the new constitution in the 1950s.
Regarding the location of the city, it is not a plain nor a highland. It did not witness big battles nor peace treaties. It is not a historical city, but it does not want to seem to be. Strangely, strong stereotypical attributes are connected to the city and the county. Whether it is a curse, we are going to find it out from this week’s collection.
Olympics will be here soon. For many of us it is pure excitement, baggy eyes and daily routine timed to the Hungarian team’s appearance. It is an event that sticks people in front of the telly, even those who are not real sport fans. There are newsreel excerptions in our collection, reporting from the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936, but you can also see parts of the London Olympics in 1948, about Olga Gyarmati’s triumph, who won Hungary’s second gold medal on the competition. You can browse among Olympic badges and stamps issued in the honour of our winners. Besides that, you can see the Olympic relics and medals of gymnast Olga Törös, fencer Zoltán Horváth and Áron Szilágyi and wrestler István Majoros. Finally, you can find out about the hopes of the person who revived the idea of Olympics, and answer for the questions: which were the most troublesome Olympic Games and when was the Hungarian team the most productive.
Once and now; a walk in the Buda Castle
The Buda Castle is our emblematic building. During its stirring history, it was under siege at least as many years as it was left abandoned and ruined. Renovations and reconstructions, enlargements and breakdowns formed it to its present shape, which is owing to the reconstruction from the 1960s to 1985. We do not want to make judgements or answer architectural historic questions. This week’s ‘once and now’ selection is about the demolished, transformed or miraculously saved parts of the palace complex. Have a nice browsing!
Operation of the secret service: acting, ideal places and methods
The organised secret services came into existence because of the needs related to counter-espionage. As the intelligence service employed militarily under-qualified spies occasionally until the second half of the 19th century, who did not work according to unified plans and organised frames in addition, thus pieces of information obtained from them often were not reliable. After a certain period, the lack of organised secret services became increasingly obvious.
Our favourite almond delicacy, marzipan
Marzipan has been a favourite sweet from ancient times to the present day. Several legends try to explain the emergence of its basic recipe, with just two ingredients, and the origin of its name. Many cultures have their own marzipan specialities, such as the Mediterranean peoples, the Germans and the Hungarians. In our exhibition, we present these gastronomic tales and the various marzipan products.
Our great-great-grandmothers’ babies – infant care in the past
Nowadays, infant care devices that have become a separate industry make life easier (or sometimes more difficult) for parents. However, a few decades, centuries ago, only a fraction of these were available. In many cases, objects that were not comfortable or were dangerous for children were replaced by safe and convenient devices for the little ones. Moreover, today there are many unnecessary things. In our exhibition, we discuss the main equipment for the care of infants and toddlers - including the cradle, the bassinet, the playpen, the feeding bottle - in the Hungarian folk culture and history.
Pálinka, my love…
Pálinka is appetizer before a family lunch, mood enhancer on a friendly party, an obligatory turn at celebrations, and it’s an insult to reject – though this latter is just a bad habit. Hungarians have a saying that means ‘Good morning with pálinka!’ and there are many other ‘nicknames’, you can call it: ‘fence-ripper’ (kerítésszaggató), ‘don’t-tousle-me’ (nerángass) or ‘my grandpa’s muter’ (nagyapám némítója). What you can use for making jam, you can also use for making pálinka – that’s how our old saying goes. You can even still beetroot or poppy-seeds.
Panem et circenses
The amphitheatres of the Roman Era offered a completely different kind of circuses than the ones you can see nowadays. Certainly, stepping into the ring back then must have been much more dangerous than it is today. Life and death fights were going on there between men and animals mixed. Presumably, many of you have an idea of that, as Ridley Scott’s Gladiator provided some hints about it. The word ‘circus’ originates from the Latin ‘circus’ and the Greek ‘kirkos’. It means circle or ring.
Past and present of the beach food movement at Lake Balaton
All of us, Hungarians have experiences of the gastronomy at Lake Balaton: about the retro hamburgers, the Hungaricum ‘langosh’ (lángos) and the present beach food gastro-revolution too. The catering of Balaton beaches is so much a determinative segment of the Hungarian culture that even cult films were made about it: Zimmer Feri (by Péter Tímár) or Szezon (by Ferenc Török). In our exhibition we are going to review how an impoverished region became the most popular holiday location in nearly a hundred years and how we got from the langosh-frying huts to the culinary delights served on the coolest terraces of the country.
Past of Pécs
Although we know a lot about the past of Pécs, the truth is sometimes distorted by biased or inaccurate historical sources. For example, Vandals – who invaded also the ancient territory of Pécs – had a much more developed culture, similarly to the conqueror Hungarian mounted nomads, than certain professional sources claim. As Ottomans did not settle down in great strength in Hungary after the occupation, the period of the Ottoman occupation was not an era of decay and destruction either. One of the best examples for that is Pécs, which was enriched with several emblematic buildings and valuable relics in this period.
Glove manufacturing has a 300 year-old past in Pécs: gloves have been made here since the middle of the 18th century. The family Hamerly built a factory that was well-known throughout Europe in the 19th century. After the Second World War, the nationalized glove factory became one of the most important mills in the world. Nowadays, seven minor glove manufacturing private firms are operating in the city, united in a cluster.
Perspectives in space and time – panoramas from the past
Panorama-type depictions were made formerly as well, but the word „panorama” has been known since the 18th century, when – mostly initially – it was the name of cycloramas. The wide range of vision and perspectives have key importance not only in case of creating a panorama view or panorama photos. Far-seeing, perspectival thinking is a characteristic of strategic planning, and the way of thinking of successful entrepreneurs and strategists. Thus, it is related to tactical operations as well. It is not a coincidence that fortresses that were important in military and tactical aspects were built on top of elevations, which made the observation of the surrounding landscape possible.
Photography bloopers and manipulations
We have compiled a bizarre photo-historical assortment for this week, with old portrait-, tableau- and genre photos that went wrong somehow, either technically or due to a careless motion or blink. As they had the chance for only one click that time, the failure of the process resulted that these photos show unlaboured moments to the curious eyes of the future.
Pinball, billiards and table football
Our need for play is eternal. Many people remember only certain toys from their ‘idyllic’ childhood that became sugar-coated during the years. Rocking horses, stuffed animal toys, red bicycles. But what about our later games? Everybody felt the usefulness of slot machines in catering industrial units, which could save countless parties from drowning in boredom. This week, we have selected photos of skill games like pinball, table football or billiards that has a long history.
Places and dramas of waiting
Despite that you often think life is too short to spend it waiting, you do spend a great deal of time on waiting during your lives. According to statistics, one spends on average three years with queuing. Either it is queuing or other kind of waiting, they are all manifestation forms of social adaptation, which are organic parts of your lives and culture.
Pop-stars on leaflets and pamphlets
The institutes uploading to our database digitise a lot of leaflets, pamphlets, invitation cards, posters, flyers and postcards. Not all of them represent important art historical values, but they are essential from the point of local history researches. How did our parents and grandparents amuse and improve themselves? These printed materials can tell stories about that too.
Portraits drawn on stone – Miklós Barabás’ lithographs in the graphic collection of the Piarist Museum
Before the conquest of photography, during the 1840s and 1850s, lithographs became the most wide-spread technique of portrait making, due to its more refined, freer and more realistic rendering than engravings and owing to its affordability. One of the most significant lithographers of Hungary was Miklós Barabás (1810-1898), whose 31 lithograph portraits are guarded in the Graphic Collection of the Piarist Museum.
Power-plant tuned for culture
The socialist heritage is a ‘heavy’ one not only in the industrial aspect. Filling the space after the closed establishments, or rather replacing them with new functions is a challenge that not only Hungary has to face. There are good examples to follow: in Vienna, where Gasometer was converted into flats, or in Germany, where the Ruhr area managed to switch from industry into culture. In Hungary, the former Ganz factory was replaced by the Millenáris as an ideal solution. It seems as if the 20-year-long sufferings after the shutdown of the former ironworks have ended and the people of Ózd can occupy the renovated Power-plant and Blowing Engine-house again, but not in the usual way.
Preserve, jam and pálinka
Zesty fruits are part of the summer, but it is worth preserving them so that you can avoid thinking of them with nostalgia in winter. We are going to get into the story of fruit preserving and jam making among preservation methods. As a matter of curiosity, the science of jam making is at least as ancient as brewing. You can easily access to recipes as well, because our collection contains a cookbook or rather an electuary book, and you can get familiar with cooking tools too.
Ramblings in breweries
In the hot summertime, there isn’t a better thing to do than to drink a pint of cold beer on your favourite terrace. Though Hungary is rather a vine-producing than a beer-brewer country, it has four historical breweries that produce more than 6 million hectolitres of beer a year. Take a bottle of your favourite bitter hop-drink in your hand and let’s have a closer look into the small Hungarian beer history, along these four factories – with a little outlook.
Furnishing is good, especially if you can express your creative energies in your own homes. Some choose from the selection of the Swedish store chain, others make their flats cosier by rethinking granny’s cupboard set. Many of you must remember the original shapes of retro furniture: besides sticky faux leather armchairs or varnished wardrobe sets, the legendary shell-shaped red armchair is still a designer item. For the interior decorators and designers of the 1970s and 1980s, filling the interior spaces of blocks of flats with new forms must have been a real challenge. However, the results speak for themselves. Réka cupboard set, Pillangó (Butterfly) sofa or the star of the ‘60s Erika chair are still living with us. This week, we invite you to a furniture expo with Sándor Bauer’s photos.
Retrospective bicycle tour
The bicycle is one of the most useful inventions of mankind: everybody uses it from children to elderly people, in cities and in the country. You can ride it anywhere, it is environmentally friendly and it keeps you fit. Great deals of artworks were inspired by the bicycle. Just think of the famous film of the Italian neorealism The Bicycle Thief, the classic Queen song Bicycle Race or Pink Floyd’s Bike. But of course the bicycle was not built in a day; you can find its predecessors on the battlefields of ancient times. Bicycle history traces back its ancestor with transporting function in the beginning of the 19th century.
Roaming in Füred
The reputation of Balatonfüred is mainly due to its climate and its carbonated springs, but we cannot forget about celebrities on holiday here, who have also contributed to its fame. Find out more about the built environment of the Balaton Riviera in our latest selection.
Roaming in Gödöllő
Almost everyone remembers the Royal Castle and Queen Elisabeth about Gödöllő. The baroque castle and the park belonging to it are truly picturesque, and it is no coincidence that it was one of the Queen's favourite residential places. However, the settlement in the Budapest agglomeration still has many hidden monuments and intricate histories.
Round tour in the look-out tower history
Conquering mountains might be some primal instinct; otherwise it would not be so desirable to get higher and higher towards the unknown. Perhaps there are more pragmatic reasons for the upward aspiration, but the point is that those who conquer the top own the breathtaking view. You can read about the history of look-out towers this week.
Sacred or profane? Nudes in fine arts
Depicting naked human bodies is an ancient need of art; this need can be self-knowledge, scientific curiosity, attraction to beauty or arousal of thirst. A nude can be a study, a practice, a realistic image aspiring objectivity, or a figure that bears the artist’s marks or an allegory by chance. All these depend on the approach of the age, the artistic style, the artist’s personality and intentions. Our exhibition and gallery will show how these things developed in painting and photography mostly.
Saint Stephen and his royal laws
The speciality of Saint Stephen’s First Book of Laws is that during the creation of these laws, he wanted to achieve a close conformity between the laws and the Christian doctrines. It seems that an increasingly humane, kind-hearted approach towards criminals prevails in them, but besides that very strict religious punishments (for example penitence and fasting) were often ordained against recusants, aiming re-education.
Science of jugglery and its legendary Hungarian masters: Rodolfo and Houdini
Magicians and illusionists exploit the deficiencies of human thinking and perception with their tricks, creating the illusion of supernatural skills. Although wizardry cannot be learnt by practising magic tricks, certain dangerous spectacles, for example escaping, allow you to develop such amazing attributions like bravery or the ability of overcoming panic in extremely stressful situations.
Secrets of Várkert Bazár
In the December 1874 issue of magazine Vasárnapi Újság (Sunday Newspaper), a short news item appeared: “The construction planned under the Royal Castle Garden will begin in early January, according to the blueprint of our architect Ybl, which best appealed his majesty. The constructions must be completed in 3 years. ” Construction eventually took a little longer, from 1875 to 1883. This week we are dealing with the history of the Várkert Bazár or Castle Garden Bazaar, but in the contemporary photographs, not only the building, but also the changes of the palace and the navigation on the Danube come to life.
Secrets of winter
It is true that winter arrives with the longest night of the year, the winter solstice, in the astronomic sense. It comes at the end of December in the north of the equator, but according to the common conception, if weather is cold enough winter is already here!
Serial costume history 1 (1850-1900)
The second half of the 19th century was the beginning of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy period and the late Victorian era. This was the time of the American civil war, the colonisation rivalry and the second industrial revolution. The time of grandiose dress creations: the ladies’ spectacular appearance has been still recalling the typical nostalgia for the period. On the other hand, gentlemen’s costumes did not really differ from formal attires of today’s men. With the portrait photos of our database, we are going to show what kind of clothes they wore during these decades.
Serial costume history 2 - The Belle Époque
In the second part of our fashion historical review, we are going to study the clothes of the turn of the century and the 1910s. Women abandon clumsy hoops and stiff corsets; uncomfortable decorations are replaced by practical common sense and elegant simplicity. We can owe these mainly to reform-costumed artistesses, suffragettes and to Coco Chanel. Our selection is dominated by female portraits, because men held on to the so far acknowledged elegancy; their clothes did not change a lot.
Serial costume history 3 – The Gatsby style and trousered divas
In the third part of our fashion historical review, girls of the twenties and thirties were already working and having fun carefreely. Both activities required comfortable clothes. Flapper girls with bob haircut danced Charleston on dance-parties. Masculine characteristics appeared on women’s clothes; Marlene Dietrich proved that even trousers could be feminine. Gentlemen already without beards wore suits, bow-ties and varied hats.
Short statue walk in Budapest
In our virtual exhibitions, we have already written about buildings in Budapest, which were demolished and which were built in their places. This time, we continue with statues that guard memories of the past. Besides the most important creators of the Hungarian memorial sculpture, the adventurous lives of statues will also be mentioned. It is surprising that although this field of sculpture was flourishing in the 19th century, its beginning is not related to the birth of a statue, but that of a pamphlet.
Sights of Sopron
Sopron has the second most national monuments in Hungary after Budapest. The historical downtown consists of only a few ancient streets, which hide the whole Hungarian history. The ornate doorways, the colourful facades of the houses, the cobbled streets and the terraces of many cosy cafés make Sopron one of the most romantic cities in Western Hungary.
Slide film history
In our virtual exhibition, we are going to study the history of slideshows and slide-projectors from the several-thousand-year-old invention of shadow plays and Leonardo da Vinci’s camera obscura to the prosperous optical industry of the 20th century. We are going back to the cambered cartoon slide projectors that existed in most households as of the 1950s and the colourful board and later plastic boxes filled with reels, from which it felt so good to select those bedtime stories.
Small investors in the world of stock exchange speculators and riggers
In the golden age of stoke-broking in Hungary, simple citizens’ investments and shares also had a great role in many success stories (like Vígszínház) and in the realisation of numberless giant investments. The widespread stoke-broking culture and the judgement of self-interest and greediness reached their present forms as a result of several contradicting historical and cultural effects.
Small reflection of Debrecen: the album Gondy-Egey
On the occasion of the day of Hungarian photography, we have been picking from the photos of the legendary photographer duo of the 19th-century Debrecen Károly Gondy and István Egey. The reorder-book saved almost 40 thousand pictures, of which nearly 2 thousand are accessible in our database as well. The material in the album is not only a social depiction but also the revival of the 19th-century Debrecen with actresses’ and noblemen’s portraits and inevitable family photos.
Some like it hot – Coffee in black and white
’It is coffee that makes people’s day living around me nicer.’ Many of us feel the same way. In the latest decades, it became an essential motor of our modern world. It wakes you up in the morning, it shakes you up during the day, and you have it when chatting with old friends whom you have not seen for ages. It has very important social and economic roles, and its effects on health are researched in several aspects. But do you know it indeed?
The bitter weather of winter is over and as you feel less and less cold in the morning, you take out your spring overcoats and shoes from the deep of wardrobes. First, snowdrops and crocuses spring up from the soil; buds appear on trees and bushes – and you hope that an unexpected frost does not spoil the yearly apple and plum yield. Nature is waking up, migratory birds return to their abandoned nests.
Stairs and staircases have at least as much metaphorical power as roads have. At the first step, you are still uncertain about the way they take you, but even the ‘journey’ itself promises an exciting adventure. A highlight of the presently popular guided historical city walks is roaming in unknown houses. People who love constructed environment can walk through them from cellar to attic even if it is a mansion or a baronial building.
Stakhanov’s fake party legend and the real origin of Stakhanovism
In order to map the cultural-historical origin of the Stakhanovite movement you have to look back until the age of the industrial revolution. Based on unveiled pieces of information, analyses, facts and party-secretary statements, it is likely that the event, during which Stakhanov produced his allegedly legendary performance, was the pre-planned, thoroughly calculated action of the Soviet communist party, and its real goal was to introduce the production-organisation principles of the western world and to increase productivity.
Star photos of actresses
For a long time, women were not allowed on stage; actually going to the theatre was not considered as a proper activity for women. Until the 17th century, men used to play women’s roles as well. The audience could really refresh when they did not have to wait for the actor in the female role, because he had to shave first. Naturally, we know famous actresses from earlier times, but the truth is that they were not judged better than prostitutes were. Instead of praising their talents, the posterity thought it is more interesting to find out if they became concubines of a king or a lord.
Stars of fashion photos
Fashion and I have had a rather ambivalent relationship with one another since the beginning. When I was a little girl, I had to try on dresses created by my grandma five times a day; I could have felt like a real model, but of course, I did not. Besides the inconvenience of trying, I saw models only in magazines and I did not really understand even then why they posed so oddly for the sake of a pullover. However, I adored the Hungarian star mannequins inconditionally; naturally, I did not know how they were called. This week, you can browse among pictures of fashion shows and fashion photos, with Ági Pataki, Bea Schmidt and Sztenya Bodó.
Stars, quarters and bull's blood - Sightseeing in Eger
Eger is a city with a very complex history. The capital of Heves County lies at the foot of the Bükk Mountains and is surrounded by a popular wine region. There are many notable things to remember about the city, including Hungarians’ favourite book, Géza Gárdonyi's novel The Stars of Eger, the Eger Castle, the memory of the heroic castle defenders, the Lyceum, the Basilica, the thermal waters or the “bull's blood” wine and the wine cellars of the Szépasszony Valley.
Staying prepared since 1912
Youth movements did not start with scouting, as religious groups, self-developing clubs, self-organising teams have always existed. But we do not know any other popular movements that had such a great influence on the youth and that still exists. Its unbroken popularity is owing to its basic principles like openness; because anybody could join the scout movement regardless of origin, social situation or religion. Probably, its independence from politics also did good to the movement. It was not easy to ignore politics when certain youth movements were considered by the public as child-sections of the Party.
Story of the Valley and the collection of the Kapolcs Club
In the spring of 1985, a red Zhiguli stopped in the middle of a street in Kapolcs, in front of Elli Márvány’s gate, got out of the car and asked: “Is there a house for sale in the village?” He was lucky, because a very nice little peasant house became vacant those days, so they went to see it and bought it immediately. This was how Kapolcs met István Márta and it was followed by the formation of Kapolcs Club and the Valley of Arts. With this exhibition we are going to introduce the beginnings of the Kapolcs Festival and the collection of Kapolcs Club.
Szabadság Square is an iconic place in Budapest, its name commemorates the War of Independence of 1848-1849. For a long time, however, the place was known more for a building symbolizing oppression, the Hungarian Bastille, the New Building. The present image of the square only developed after its demolition, so that the scene of bad memory became a memorial to the idealism of national independence and freedom. In our latest selection, you can track subsequent changes of the location.
Ten curiosities about the Hungarian sparkling wine production and about champagne maker Törley
You can drink it when you are happy or sad, but mostly on special occasions and on New Year’s Eve of course. The champagne is in the focus of our current compilation.
That’s how the thousand-year-old Hungary celebrated
1896 was the year of the Millennium definitely. The whole country was in a fever. Special and exciting events followed one another: inauguration of the Vígszínház and the Museum of Applied Arts, launch of the Underground, Árpád Feszty’s cyclorama and the New York Coffee House on the grand boulevard (Nagykörút) were also ready. There were places for entertainment as well, for example ‘Ős Budavára’ (Ancient Buda Castle) was a famous hall in the era, where elated moments were not only due to alcohol. Adventure-seekers could admire the urbanizing Budapest in Louis Godard’s hot-air balloon from above. Our gallery includes the pavilion of the Transport Museum, Grand Duke Joseph’s pavilion and the Trade Hall, which cannot be seen anymore, but its base and flooring was reused and a famous youth leisure centre of Budapest operated on its place until 2015. It was not only the capital city that celebrated. On the occasion of the millennial feasts, memorial monuments were erected on seven places that were significant regarding the Hungarian state founding, for example: Zimony (Zemun), Brassó (Brasov) and Pannonhalma.
The ancient magic of dance
Dance is the most varied form of expression of the soul, a truly ancient instinct, but it is undoubtedly much more than movement, just as music is not only a sequence of sounds. Dance is one of the highest forms of art. In our latest selection, to mark World Dance Day, we look at the history of ballet and contemporary dance, illustrated with photographs of Hungarian artists, and pay tribute to our dancers.
The Austrian-Hungarian Riviera
Sunshine, clear salty water, picturesque rocks and mountains above the coast. These are primary conditions of a real holiday by the sea – our great-great-grandparents knew that already. Our exhibition is going to show you the most popular holiday resorts of the Adriatic Sea during the period of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the charming towns of Abbázia (Opatija), Lovran and Cirkvenica (Crikvenica). You are going to see where the cream of the Monarchy went to toast themselves.
The bath culture of Hévíz
Hévíz, a bath town known for hundreds of years, is just a stone's throw away from Lake Balaton. It is a place with a particular microclimate, one of its special features is the mysterious fog or mist that actually covers the lake, the other is the waterlilies on the surface of the water. Already the Romans could know about the beneficial effects of the medicinal lake, but Hévíz became a real bathing place because of the activities of the Festetics family. Its peak of popularity was in the period between the two world wars, with thousands of visitors due to the lake-based medicinal tourism. Still, the lake kept its secret for a long time, as attempts in the 1900s to find its source were unsuccessful. This week, the mysteries of Hévíz will be revealed.
The best pictures of adventurous festivals
People have always searched for occasions when they could take part in social experiences, either ancient pagan rituals, early Christian meetings, field jamborees of the 1800s or festivals of the modern age. But why is feasting good? – you can ask. Besides amusement and the possibility of leaving your comfort zone, the recreation with picturesque environment, art and adventurous experiences might help you obtain a refreshing new way of seeing things.
The Bulgarian community in Hungary
Bulgarians are one of the thirteen officially recognized nationalities of Hungary. The Bulgarians living here are usually identified with the Bulgarian gardeners, although their traders were also well represented. Until the middle of the last century, a metropolitan market was almost unthinkable without the presence of Bulgarian gardeners. In fact, they revolutionized our horticulture by laying the foundation stones for modern vegetable growing. This week, we pay tribute to the Bulgarian community living in Hungary.
The city of sunshine, Szeged
The city of Szeged is rich not only in the number of hours of sunshine. Throughout its history, it has often faced hostile armies and River Tisza. However, the city's richness is mainly due to the hard work and resilience of its people, which also required a bit of serendipity. Szeged is the destination of our latest local history adventure.
The craft of glass painting and the legacy of Miksa Róth
Glass painting started in the 11th and 12th centuries, but its real renaissance was in the 13th, which is related to the overruling of the Gothic style. In our present exhibition, besides reviewing the history and method of glass painting, we have selected some documents from Miksa Róth’s legacy that is preserved by the employees of the MTA (Hungarian Academy of Sciences) Centre for Social Sciences, and which has been made accessible in digitised form in our database.
The crown of Mecsek to be reopened
The four-star Hotel Kikelet has not received guests since the fall of 2015. Owner Ferenc Scheffer said then that he had been offering the hotel for sale for three years, and no buyers had turned up until then. The neighbouring Da Vince Private Clinic announced this year that it had purchased the former hotel redolent of age, where they would like to develop a hotel department for patients, a policlinic with 16 surgeries and offices. Besides operating a wellness section, they also want to form a physiotherapy room and to launch physiotherapy treatments. They are planning to open the restaurant and terrace – one of the most beautiful ones in Pécs – not only for the Da Vinci patients but also for the general public.
The Cult of Empress Elisabeth
Public monument sculpture played a significant role in the image of 19th century settlements. However, the sculptures are not only about the changes that have taken place in the fabric of the city; they can also be used to trace the development of the cult of a given person, including the memory of Empress and Queen Elisabeth. Nowadays, the statue of Elisabeth looks at the Buda side calmly in the park next to the bridge named after her, even though it used to be an ornament of the Pest side. Most of the Queen’s monuments were made in the years after her death. Still, this monument in Budapest followed a series of statues more than 30 years later, when Sisi's memory had quite faded. What conditions hindered the completion of the work, and what was the cult of Elisabeth like at the beginning of the 20th century, will be revealed in our selection.
The early period of nature study
Nature study was the common name of the following sciences: zoology, botany, mineralogy, petrology and palaeontology in the 18th and 19th centuries, and it mostly consisted of collecting, systematising and expounding knowledge based on observations. As the expression ‘nature study’ became old-fashioned after the uprise of sciences based on experiments in the 20th century, the denomination ‘natural science’ replaced it. In this week’s virtual exhibition, we have chosen some quotations and illustrations from the natural study works of old times.
The fairy garden of Budapest
Summer and good weather are here and you could have a pleasant day if you chose to walk along Margaret Island in the heart of Budapest. You couldn’t do this 250 years ago, because the island was in possession of the church and then became the palatine’s holiday resort. It was the ranch of rollicking artists for a long period, like a kind of ‘artistic colony’; many of their literary works were born under the oak trees of the island. It is a paradise for spa lovers, the gathering place of professional sportspeople, amateur runners and outdoor yoga practicing persons.
The fancy, the scientific and the strange: antique book illustrations and theories
Illustrations of codices and other old books bespeak about doctrines and ideas of a certain period of time, besides the artists’ aesthetical tastes. In certain eras, people thought that beauty originated from God and that it was the artists’ responsibility to reflect God’s glory on works of art appropriately. Thus, they made certain masterpieces with especially great sense of responsibility and carefulness.
The first public hospital in Pest, the Rókus
Health care institutions have been present in Pest for centuries, but it was only with the opening of the St. Rókus Hospital that the spital, which emphasized healing rather than nursing and separation, became available to citizens. Initially a poorhouse, the institution is associated with many important milestones in Hungarian health care: it played an important role during the plague and cholera epidemics of the 18th and 19th centuries. Ferenc Flór and Ignác Semmelweis worked here, and at the turn of the century, X-rays were already used in diagnostics.
The gem of Debrecen, Hotel Aranybika
The story of the Aranybika, "Golden Bull" is an indispensable chapter in the rich history of Debrecen. The Grand Hotel Aranybika is an emblematic place of the civic city, which has nothing to do with the bulls of the plain, but with the Bika (Bull) family. The family’s land was acquired by the city at auction with the aim of building a hotel on it. The house, located on the main street, suited the town, as at that time it had only one guesthouse. The circumstances under which the building you can still see today was built can be learnt from our latest selection of hotel and catering history.
The German officer, the jazz songstress and the New York Hotel
As history goes on, there are always winners, survivors and also losers among the participants unfortunately. Sometimes, fortune stands by us in unexpected situations. The survivors of this story were Leonhard Scheller, the German military officer, Kató Fényes, the popular jazz songstress and all the people whom they rescued in the war together. The New York Hotel was a survivor and winner as well, and the biggest loser of the story was the Hungarian jazz.
The heart of the Danube Bend
Vác, the heart of the Danube Bend, has been inhabited for a long time due to its favourable conditions. Its name was first mentioned in the founding charter of the Garamszentbenedek abbey in 1075. However, there are several theories about the origin of the town name, one of which says that the place name was derived from a personal name: a hermit named Vác, who lived in the area. This week we are going to visit the city of Vác.
The heyday of drugstores in Budapest
Cologne, lady's powder, moustache twirler, these are just some of the popular products that residents of Budapest could find on the shelves of drugstores. The store of the Neruda family served the demands of people of the capital for three generations. This week, you can get a glimpse into another exciting slice of trade history, the world of druggists.
The history of aviation
Who has never dreamt of flying? Humans have been longing for flying from times immemorial. The most important stages of the Hungarian history of aviation were documented not only by written records. They are revived by contemporary photos and newsreels: zeppelins, world-war bombers and hydroplanes. For example, photos prove that the idea of Zeppelin’s famous airship is actually the Hungarian Dávid Schwarz’s merit. In the 1920s, the Danube had important hydroplane traffic as well besides the ship transport, moreover on Lake Balaton, too. Our pilots conquered the sky not only above Hungary: László Almásy, our famous Africa explorer stood in front of the camera with the Pyramids of Giza in the background. After World War II, aviation was run by Maszovlet on the basis of an agreement with the Soviet Union and Hungary. Malév (the Hungarian Airlines) was established on 25 November 1954 and operated as an emblematic company of Hungary until 2012
The history of sleighing and skiing
December. Usually, the first snow falls down this time and lakes may freeze in as well. The snow-cover thickness record of 151 cm that fell in the area of Kőszeg in February 1947 could not be overpassed since then. A lot of snow fell during the 20th century, for example there was a memorable snowfall in 1987. What did people of the 20th century do in wintertime? Let us see it now!
The hundred-year-old Gellért
Gellért Hotel can be conceived as a kind of time capsule, because it can show its past one hundred years: the detailed elegance of the twenties, the burden of war, modernisation efforts of the seventies and today’s world of taste through gastronomy at one place at the same time. After many years of planning and a long-continued construction due to the First World War, the building redolent with age opened its gates to its first guests one hundred years ago in September 1918.
100 stories. They say that the first one is crucial in everything. Who could deny it? But for us, who write and edit the virtual exhibitions every week, each composition is special. Our one hundredth selection is also a special one, and we celebrate it in an unusual way.
The independent post administration turns 150
Nowadays, the classic form of postal services is being confined, though it served highly important needs at its birth. Today, it is used for paying cheques, buying lottery tickets or taking out insurances. The establishment of Magyar Posta (Hungarian Post) is connected to the Compromise, just like many other institutes are. Let’s see how its history developed.
The Kistelegdi Collection
Dr. István Kistelegdi, Ybl-prize winner architect and emeritus professor at the University of Pécs, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, donated his photo collection about his life work to the Local History Collection of Csorba Győző Library in 2012. He took more than 5000 photos as the designer of BARANYATERV (between 1972 and 1988) and later the designer of PÉCSITERV. The collection partly covers the state constructions of Pécs and Baranya, Somogy and Tolna counties since the 1970s until the change of regime.
The Land of Witches and Grimm Tales - The Harz Mountains
The mysterious landscapes of the Harz Mountains have inspired many tales and horror stories, including the stories of the Grimm brothers and the Walpurgis Night set in Goethe’s Faust. The characteristic wooden beamed houses of the countryside create a truly fairytale-like milieu. In addition to fairytales, the cities around the Harz also have a rich and intricate historical past.
The loves of Rippl-Rónai
When József Rippl-Rónai became Munkácsi's student and later his assistant in Paris, he found his models in the street or in cafés and asked them to sit for him. He did not have close relationships with all his models, but this is how it happened at the weekly fair in Neuilly in 1888, when he met Lazarine Baudrion, his future wife, who was from Burgundy. It happened this way also at the restaurant in Csengery Street, where he met Elza Bányai, Zorka. This week, we are not looking to find out how Rippl-Rónai painted, but how he loved.
The museum piece, the treasured and the concert
Kossuth, Kisfaludy, Szent István; some people can recognize them from the names. It is not a secret that we are going to set sail in our actual composition. First for the Danube and then for farther seas. The elder days of glory went by – concerning the Hungarian navigation – but fortunately, there are plenty of relics that can be admired live as well. Now all aboard and let us set sail virtually!
The origin of equestrian warfare
According to archaeologists, by all indications, around the second millennium BC, tubular arrowheads extended eastward, as against to the composite reflex bow, which spread from east towards west, and the concept of army formation from south to north. When these innovations met in Central Asia around 900 BC, it resulted in the formation of infamous and fearful cavalry armies.
The Pearl of Transylvania, Tusnádfürdő
Tusnádfürdő is a famous climatic thermal bath, yet many people know it because of the Bálványos Summer Free University, which has been held here since 1997. The bath was established in the middle of the 1800s, it was named the Pearl of Transylvania at the beginning of its flourishing, in the 1860s. Miraculous healings are associated with its name; the best known and most characteristic of which is the story of a shepherd boy grazing animals. Legend has it that a shepherd boy looking for his cattle wandering the marsh, was wading through the area and found that the sulphuric mud had a beneficial effect on his ulcerated feet. As usual, the beneficial effects of the springs that burst here were first enjoyed only by the locals, but by the turn of the century, Tusnádfürdő became a real thriving spa. In our latest article, its bathing culture comes to life.
The rain in May is worth gold – and what about the wedding?
It is a cliché that May is the month of love, spring, and trees in bud, colourful flowers and the beginning of the wedding season. According to superstitions, there are a lot of things that have influences on the successful outcome of a marriage, besides the date and the weather. Let’s see some of them.
The Royal Hotel
The Royal Hotel or Grand Hotel Royal lived the everyday life of an ancient hotel: celebrities in the guest book, luxurious circumstances, a cinema in the ballroom; but it also witnessed sad events: a quarantine, the settlement of the Gestapo or bombardments in 1956.
The sculptor triumvirate of Túrkeve – the Finta brothers
The Finta brothers – Sándor, Gergely and Sámuel – were outstanding sculptor artists of the first half of the 20th century. Their life stories ran differently, they found their talents in other ways, but their lives were not only about sculpture. They were also occupied by medal art, graphic works, short stories and book illustrations. In our actual virtual tour, we are going to introduce the Finta artworks of Finta Museum of Túrkeve, in 3D digitised form besides the tanglesome life stories of the brothers.
The story of ice-cream
Although ice-cream is thought to be a typical Italian dessert, it originates from China. But in those times, it was rather like sorbets today, made of ice and fruits. It had an adventurous journey to Europe, but borderlines could not stop its spreading, and its popularity is still unbroken. Nowadays, only the nominal debates around dosage can cause some puzzling. Apart from that, you can have a scoop, a ball, a lick or a spatula of it with pleasure.
The uncrowned kings of the Rococo: The Klauber brothers’ workshop in Augsburg
If the concept of brand building, marketing, or public relations had existed in the 18th century, it would probably have been illustrated with the Klauber brothers. The brothers established an engraving company in Augsburg in the 1740s, which also employed independent artists, and became the European centre for Catholic icon publishing, and reformed Christian iconography through new representative engraving series, leading it to new paths in the Rococo.
The wonderful Zsolnay
The eosin-glazed ceramics of Vilmos Zsolnay earned him immortal merit in the handicraft industry, but our country has also benefitted from this fame. The history of the Zsolnay factory began in the 1850s, when Ignác Zsolnay founded his small ceramics manufacture. After a few years, the leadership was taken over by Vilmos, who quickly transformed it into a high-quality factory. The history of the factory, as is usual in our country, is also a family history, so our selection not only tells the story of the Zsolnay factory and the world-famous tiles, but also the story of the family members.
The world of medieval castles
Despite that only the rich could afford the luxury of building castles, living in a castle seems rather miserable for today’s people due to the underdevelopment of the Middle Ages. However, the interior spaces were more decorated; the rooms were less furnished and darker (especially in winter) than you would think today.
Theory of slumber
Some people are fond of it; some people think it is just a waste of time. In one way or another, you have to sacrifice eight hours a day on average in order to have your sleep out. People have always been interested in the mysterious world of sleeping and dreams. This is demonstrated well by the fact that this year’s Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to three American researchers for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm.
There was once an EMKE
"I'm waiting for you today at seven at the Nemzeti, where the No. 6 stops, The gypsy of the EMKE is playing in front of it..." The following excerpt, which is heard in the operetta by István Békeffi and Lajtai Lajos, is perhaps the best-known reference to the place. A few decades ago, EMKE was a concept, a landmark like Moszkva Square. Of course, the acronym lived on in the memories of the people of Pest primarily as a café. To find out where the name came from and who we have to thank for its creation, take a look at our latest selection of catering history.
Thermal water cure in Karlovy Vary
A unique experience in the historic part of Karlovy Vary is to stroll through the colonnades with a beaky mug and taste the waters of the various springs, with their different tastes and temperatures, while nibbling on a bathing waffle and walking through the closed row of buildings along the riverside, from the oddly towering Thermal Hotel to the Grandhotel Pupp, known as Casino Royale.
They used to rush on me with stones, now with flowers- Artúr Görgei
Was he a traitor? A living martyr? A strategist? A scientist? Almost all of these. Artúr Görgei’s assessment still induces debates, but during his life, all of the above-mentioned attributes were hung on him. Although it is a fact, that Görgei – who was born 200 years ago – became famous or rather infamous due to the surrender at Világos. In our current compilation, we are searching for an answer for the question: Who was he? What motivated him in getting rid of the ‘y’ ending in his name, which indicated his noble origin? How did he live with the thought of being sentenced to life?
Time travel on the Grand Boulevard
The grandiose vision of a civil engineer and the extravagant dream of some entrepreneurs materialized in one plan can convince and hold many people, inspiring them to do something for its realization. The plan, which was about connecting the districts of a city dotted with scrappy one-storied houses, stables, and workshops with a traffic route bordered with rows of palaces that could boost the city, was realized partly. This is the inspiring story of the Grand Boulevard of Pest.
Tisza shoes, at all times!
Martfű became famous as the peak of Hungarian shoes, though the Czech born Jan Antonin Baťa was the one who first saw fantasy in the little village by the Tisza. He bought the site of the shoe factory in 1939 and started producing three years later under the name Cikta Inc. After nationalisations, it received the well-sounding name Tisza Shoe Factory National Company and the rest is history. The irony of fate is that besides the shoe factory, Martfű went down in history with the atrocities of a serial killer. This week we are travelling to Martfű.
Tour in Egypt
Humankind came a long way in the past centuries; we have tamed nature, we have walked on the moon, yet we still gaze with inexplicable awe at the remaining wonders of the ancient world, such as the pyramid of Cheops. It was no different at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries, according to the images of the Uránia Association, a renowned organiser of educational lectures of the period, which form the backbone of our selection.
Towers are like exclamation marks at the end of sentences: they close down but also emphasize. A tower is a functional element in architecture; in sacral meaning: a form that links the sky and the earth. A tower is always a direction indicator, drawing attention, whether it is the ornament of a church, a reservoir or a transmission tower forwarding radio waves. Towers play the lead this week. Have a nice browsing!
Tramway of Pécs
The history of the public transport in Pécs reached an important milestone 105 years ago, because the first tram of the city was launched that day, and Pécs became the 29th city in the Monarchy, where tramway transport existed. In this week’s virtual conjuration of the past, we are going to introduce you the story and former routes of the tram of Pécs.
Travelling to Lower Saxony
This week we are goint to take readers to the north-western corner of Germany, to Lower Saxony, to the land of former Hanseatic cities, timber-framed houses, and wind farms. Its old towns, castles and forests that saw many battles almost take us back to medieval times.
The term "treasure Kolozsvár" is probably related to the fact that Kolozsvár (Cluj Napoca today) was for a long time the centre of Transylvanian jewellery art, but it is basically a reference to the wealth of the city, which was mainly used during the time of the Principality of Transylvania. This is no coincidence, as the establishment of the independent Principality of Transylvania also marked the beginning of the heyday of Kolozsvár. What could introduce better the rich and varied history of the city than its most important landmark, the Main Square? You can follow the evolution and changes of this magical place in our latest selection of local history.
Tree as symbol
Your repeating daily rituals give you few occasions to notice the changes of our environment. Though, it is very calming to stroll under a shady alley and feel as the light filtered by leaves caresses your face. The life cycle of trees is similar to yours. Birth, budding youth, dignified old age. The symbol system related to trees is as old as humanity; this is our topic this week.
As part of the Paris Peace Conference that closed the World War I, the Treaty of Trianon was signed at the Grand Trianon Palace of Versailles one hundred years ago on 4 June in 1920. The peace treaty – or dictate in certain sources – defined the new borderlines of the Kingdom of Hungary due to the break-up of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. In this week’s virtual exhibition, we are commemorating the historical Hungary with a postcard compilation issued during the “happy peacetimes”.
Two iconic expos in the socialist era in Hungary: the Budapest International Fair (BNV) and the OMÉK
The story of the Budapest International Fair (BNV) is definitely a success story, just like that of the Agricultural Fair. As extremely popular events, both attracted masses of visitors during long decades. Especially the BNV, whose success was mainly due to its entertaining features as well, owing to diverse programs like film screenings, fashion shows and food-tastings. Its popularity was even boosted by the “big hype” generated by TV and radio broadcasts.
Under the open sky of Pest - on the plain side of Budapest
Last week we visited the former garden-restaurants, terraces and taverns of Buda and gained some insight into where the celebrities of the era, the middle-class citizens longing for amusement, or the members of aristocracy went out if they wanted to have a rest with a drink after a trip, or to have a good meal. Let’s see what happened meanwhile on the other side, in the shadows of plane trees and parks.
Under the spell of superstitions
Superstitions are present in our everyday lives imperceptibly, for example, many people knock something on wood to make sure it does not happen, even if they do not necessarily believe in it. However, our ancestors still attached great importance to superstitions and their associated rituals, which they used for gaining some control over sometimes rather unpredictable life events.
Values or frills?
Complaints often emerge against artistic works, like “it is nice and good, but could not its cost be spent on something else, something more useful?”. The question arose also in the second half of the 19th century, related to memorial medallions that represent rather high artistic values and rarity, among the Hungarian Doctors and Nature Scientists’ Society. This time, our virtual exhibition will introduce the memorial medals of roaming assemblies and a reward medal – issued by the Society – that you can find in the collection of the Piarist Museum.
Veszprém, where music is always played – by the bells or the wind
Veszprém is known as the city of queens, but it also has the attribute of the city of winds, as the stormy gusts of wind coming from Bakony very often ruffle the feathers of people living here. In our latest selection, besides the short history of the settlement, we also explain these rhetorical characterizations of the city, and in connection with its iconic tower, the fire protection of the city comes to life as well.
While walking on the yellow carpet of fallen leaves and tasting the flavoury grapes of the autumn, what else can come to one’s mind than the vine-harvest? Although grape-stomping and tamping are hard work, the harvest itself was and is considered a feast. It is about celebrating the fruit of a whole year’s work, which can be consumed later on. The date of vine-harvest used to be attached to an illustrious day in the 18th and 19th centuries: from Michaelmas (29 September) to the day of Saint Simon the Zealot (28 October). In several regions of the Hungarian Great Plain, the vine-harvest started at Michaelmas. In the Transdanubian and Transylvanian regions, it started on the day of Teresa of Avila (15 October); in the regions of Lake Balaton and Kőszeg, on the day of Saint Ursula (21 October) and it used to begin on the day of Saint Simon (28 October) in the Tokaj-Hegyalja region.
Viola Berki’s art
Art historians rate Viola Berki as a naive artist. Her fate is full of contradictions just like her art is. She admitted that she did a lot of illustration works, which was to the detriment of her painting. Her master was Géza Fónyi at the Art College, but Béla Kondor did great impression on her. This week you can get to know her oeuvre.
Virtual reality and 3D in the baroque era
The chamber exhibition of the Piarist Museum invites online visitors to a real time travel, because it introduces the early representatives of nowadays so popular VR (virtual reality) and 3D images. Our graphical collection hides about 60 pieces of coloured perspective engravings, panorama views that have a unique cultural, media, and art historical importance. These pictures played the role of the internet or television in the 18th century, taking viewers to far away, unreachable lands and cities, imitating the illusion of reality.
Summer and good weather have finally arrived. It is high time you went out and explore the well-known and hidden tourist places of Hungary. The sections of the Countrywide Blue Tour must be part of our selection, but other natural or historical sights are also included.
Visible and invisible 15th March
I am inviting our kind readers to a short virtual tour on the occasion of this illustrious day. We are going to see through what important historical events happened on the different points of the historic city centre of Pest on 15th March. We are going to study the history of buildings that were important locations: where they stood, if they still stand or what functions they served then and now. Follow me, please!
Walking in Buda Castle
The Buda Castle District was demolished twice, and its appearance changed accordingly. Chapels were transformed into multi-nave churches, which later became mosques and were replaced by Christian churches again. The majority of the buildings are based on medieval foundations, but today only a few arches and niches are left to remind us of this. When Buda returned to Christian hands after 145 long years, few of the houses and churches in the quarter, which had been under constant cannon fire, remained intact. This week, we invite you to discover the talking streets of the Castle District.
Walking on Rózsadomb
Being a Rózsadomb (Rose Hill) resident is perhaps still synonymous with wealth. Of course, there was a time, when the image of this Buda area was determined not by luxury villas but vineyards. Then came the grape phylloxera, and the owners, blacksmiths, were replaced by the citizens who wanted to spend their holiday there. We invite you for a walk on Rózsadomb this week.
War gastronomy – not only the goulash is fake sometimes
It is not a novelty that work goes better when the stomach is full. But what can you do, when you do not have enough provisions? Egg-powder, tinned food, instant coffee, these are not the shopping list of a family that goes camping. Indeed, food substitutes appeared already in the First World War, to cater not only soldiers but also the civils, thinking about the lean times. We are going to look into the secrets of war cuisine this week.
Wash yourself cleverly – Time travel in hygiene I.
‘Have you washed your hands?’ – a familiar motherly warning from our childhood often comes to our minds before meals, especially, when we transmit this wisdom already as parents. In the recent decades, nobody disputes the importance of personal hygiene any more or puts the question if our flat has a bathroom. Washing your body is a basic part of the body culture including both cleaning your body and your clothes.
Wash yourself cleverly – Time travel in hygiene II.
The selection of toiletries satisfying all existing and non-existing requirements of the consumer society is almost endless: shampoos, toothpastes, shower gels, shower lotions, bath gels, bath balls, body washes and of course the most basic one: soap.
Wekerle Estate, the magical garden suburb
The charm of Wekerletelep (Wekerle Estate) is also due to the garden suburb atmosphere and the folk Art Nouveau style buildings located here. Few people remember its original name, the Kispest State Workers' Colony, even the first inhabitants referred to it only as the Wekerletelep; the grateful population remembered this way minister Sándor Wekerle, who had the fate of the settlement at the heart. The significance of the residential area is that the principle system of the garden city building movement starting from England was realized here. Moreover, it has become one of the largest and most successful examples of centrally designed and built European garden cities. This week, the story of the "Wekerle" comes to life.
What he fought against became his destiny
The most respectful Hungarian medical university is named after Semmelweis. His birthday is the feast of medical workers, and his name became well known as the saviour of mothers. What kind of man was he? A hardheaded one. He collected a lot of enemies in the medical society with his persistent stubbornness, but it could not happen otherwise. In a period, when a good doctor was recognized by the smell of corpses remotely, he pestered the venerable doctors with sanitary regulations. On the occasion of his 200th birth anniversary, we are looking into his tragic walk of life and the story of the Hungarian medicine.
When computers were unemployed
Owing to John von Neumann and his colleagues, modern computers conquered research institutes and then our homes. The electronic computers which stored programmes and were made on the basis of the Neumann principles were huge giants that filled the whole room. The first really modern computer IAS was not an exception either. It was built at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton by the Neumann group, by 1951. After eight years, the first Hungarian computer M-3 started working on 21 January, 1959.
When the "red rooster" flares up - A short history of the Hungarian fire service
Throughout history, people have feared fire as much as they have used it to their advantage. The dreaded fire, the "red rooster", could strike at any time and consume whole settlements. An organised force of dedicated people was needed to subdue the flames in case of trouble. There were firefighters in ancient Rome and its provinces, and there have always been firefighters in later times, who chose to take on the task of putting out fires, with all the danger and responsibility that entailed.
Where fashion is born – Goldberger Textile Mill
When talking about the Hungarian textile and clothes industries, many people might associate to nylon housecoats, jersey pulls or the May 1 Clothes Factory, though their traditions go back to a much longer time. Our current virtual exhibition allows you to follow the development of a small family blue dyer firm becoming the largest textile company of Hungary, while you can also get to know the touching story of the family behind the factory.
Who laughs last… - Laughter philosophical disquisitions
You laugh when you perceive something funny, if you recall an amusing event, if you are in the middle of a happy moment, if you enjoy something, feel embarrassed, feel uneasy or want to be sarcastic. Lots of positive and negative things can result in laughing, smiling, tittering. As it is a complex process, it has been examined in many ways from medicine to philosophy. We have collected some points of interest from these.
Willy Wonka in Szerencs
The favourite dessert of us all, the chocolate stands in the focus of our weekly exhibition. One of the most beloved sweets got into Europe from the land of the Aztecs just a couple of centuries ago. It is the trump ace at celebrations; normally the birthday cake also contains it, Santa Claus and the Easter Rabbit also bring chocolates in their own shapes, and its mass gets the heart form on Valentin’s Day.
Winter feasts and traditions
This week we look at the winter repertoire of folk food culture. The cold season, festive and religious customs limited the food choices and, in this context, food as magical objects, the ritual of eating and the beliefs associated with it were of particular importance. It also reveals how the traditional Christmas dishes of today (fish soup, stuffed cabbage, poppy-seed and walnut roll cake “bejgli”) were brought to the table of our ancestors.
Women at work
The habit of sharing work between sexes is as old as humankind. Women’s job or men’s job; nowadays one refrains from putting it so bluntly. One thing is sure, women have always worked, either on fields or in a family grocery, and later in different professions for salary. We would like to blandish to you with women’s history this week. There are going to be women behind a counter, in factories, in the role of a nurse or a foreworker.
World war pictures from the archive
The artefacts of wars of ancient times will all get into museums once. Photos will as well as guns. At least most of them certainly will. But is it possible that one day the war itself, with all its means of warfare, will remain only a museum relic? While there are signs that humanity can learn from history, this learning does not seem to be commeasurable on a world scale.
You are wonderful, Tabán
The arrival of spring is indicated by not only the warmish breeze and chirping birds but also the fact that more and more people spend their lunches or dinners in the open-air. This time, we are lingering on cool terraces in the legendary Tabán of Budapest.
People’s attraction to exotic animals is not a novelty, nor their collection and ostentation. The richness and power of rulers were not indicated by just the content of their treasuries, but also by the number of special animals in their courts. In the London Tower, there was a zoo as early as in the 13th century, but of course, it was not like today’s modern zoos; they kept panthers and lions. In Hungary, probably King Matthias had the most particular animals. According to chronicles, two lions and a number of exotic bird species gave light to his court. Nowadays, the aim of zoos is not to entertain and show special animals any more, but to save species. Although the panda diplomacy avoids Hungary, it seems we do not run out of brown bears.