- art history
- family history
- local history
- motion pictures
- pop culture
“Bright, colourful and loud as the roar of cannons!” – Little advert history
Whether you are aware of it or not, pay attention to it or not, it is still there everywhere and around you, in order that its impulses urge you to shop. Although the methods during centuries in the history of advertising changed due to technical developments, the main element of advertising remained raising attention from times immemorial.
“The yellow is the finest.
…Reams and reams of letters could I write in yellow ink to her, the little schoolgirl of my dreams. I'd scrawl something that looks like Japanese, then try a bird, most intricately scrolled.” – Dezső Kosztolányi wrote this in the poem I dream of coloured inks. If you look up to the sky, you see the sun yellow, but its colour is white actually, which means it contains all the colours. Colour depends on the wavelength of light: humans perceive the light yellow between 565 and 590 nanometres wavelength.
Self-portraits: works of art whose models were the creators themselves. Hearing this word, some famous pictures appear in our mind’s eye, for example Albrecht Dürer's self-portrait, as he depicted himself as Jesus Christ; Raphael’s calm features or about a hundred self-portrait engravings, drawings and paintings of Rembrandt van Rijn.
650th anniversary of the University of Pécs
As of 2017, the first day of September will be the Day of the Hungarian Higher Education, the memorial day of the foundation of the University of Pécs. On the 650th anniversary of the foundation of the University, we are commemorating this institute of great tradition with the following virtual exhibition.
A bridge as a link
In our language, the meanings related to a bridge or bridges and the metaphoric content of meaning emphasize their role of linking and interconnecting. In the urbanistic aspect, we can say that the history of the Budapest bridges is also the history of Budapest, but the situation is the same in the country too. The bridges that were exploded in the war and were rebuilt from scratch, the maimed elements of bridges during decades, served not only as functional elements, but also for spanning over borderlines or separating them. This week’s story is about bridges built between Buda and Pest, disappeared quarters, reconstructions and temporary solutions. Have a nice browsing!
A dog’s life
Dogs have been living with us from times immemorial, and still play important roles in our lives. They used to help people in hunting and shepherding, and now they are also occupied with leading the blind, rescuing and providing therapies.Dogs were developed by the domestication of an already-extinct subspecies of wolves. When it happened exactly is still a question of debates, but they have been partners of humans probably since the Palaeolithic age or the Neolithic age. Dog breeds are extremely colourful, and are classified in ten dog races on the basis of appearance or role.
A table for two with shade, view and fresh air
Compared to previous years, beer-gardens and terraces have been opened a bit later than usual this year, due to the winter in April after Easter, but slowly one can plan to sit outside more confidently. Let’s look around the terraces of restaurants and taverns next to once-popular hiking destinations. First on the side of Buda.
A unique liqueur and family story
The family Zwack has been leading their factory for the past six generations, not counting the period of nationalization. Their name and lives welded with Unicum. A secret recipe, positive thinking, some good luck and venturesome spirit. Is that all their secret? Our current collection reveals it.
About the Lechners – Jenő Kismarty-Lechner’s oeuvre
“He built a hell of a lot of monuments. The next generation will have a hard battle with the committee of monuments if they want to demolish. His main works: the fourth floor of the Museum (what a pity that nobody goes up there), the assembly hall of the Ministry of Interior (nobody is allowed to get in there), and the Basilica of Esztergom in Tisztviselőtelep.” These characterising lines were published in the architect students’ joke paper Megfagyott Muzsikus (frozen musician) about Jenő Kismarty-Lechner. You are going to be introduced into his oeuvre this week.
Ady’s forgotten Muse
Love fades away slowly, especially if it is platonic. How many untold words and missed opportunities are hidden behind tiny little memories and letters? Waiting, suffering, the joy, the pain and many more sentiments could be hidden in a young girl’s heart, when she decided to give up her desires. Whether provincial prudery or a moral question stood behind this? Anyway, could you keep a secret like your love is Endre Ady for decades? Today’s selection highlights this mysterious relationship; with Endre Ady, Illi Kíváncsi (Curious), the family Varga and their relatives.
Nowadays, it is taken for granted that you can open the tap and get either cold drinking water or fine warm water. But only few people have this luck in the world and maybe our grandchildren will not be able to enjoy this comfort. How did water supply developed in Hungary since the ancient Romans? Would you ever think of how many aquatic relics you pass by during your days? Our aquatic exhibition is going to answer these questions.
Are women who read dangerous?
Of course not. But why is this idea interesting? According to reading sociological surveys, literature is read by women mostly, at least they say that when they are asked. The changes in reading habits has been a subject of arguments for a long time, especially about the fact that we do not read books, in addition, our children do not read either. Instead of stereotyped phrases, this week, we are looking at what female readers read and how they were approached in the past centuries.
As long as the Danube… - hairstyle-historical curiosities
The human head of hair is an inevitable part of cultural history. During history, men usually formed their hair and facial hair according to fashion, followed the actual ruler – and sometimes wore a certain hairstyle because of revolt or constraint. In case of women, mainly in folk cultures, hairstyles always meant something: age, marital status – besides the fashion and revolt. Wearing and presenting hair are immortal symbols of life-force, health, and it also signifies power and is a tool of self-expression.
At the café - better than being at home
Espresso, double espresso, long coffee, cappuccino, ristretto, mocha, macchiato, melange, café au lait, Irish, Turkish, coffee with milk, with ice or whipped cream. With or without sugar. In the morning, at noon, in the evening. At home, in a street, on a veranda, on a terrace, during work or during a break, in a real cup or paper cup, from the corridor machine or at a boulevard café, in any seasons; coffee. One cup of perfect coffee demands 7 grams of ground coffee. But what kind of demand lay behind going to the café at the turn of the century?
Atomic rockets on standby: key figures and the most dangerous situations of the cold war
In fact, several people were important characters in the cold war – President Truman, George Marshall and President Eisenhower -, but the real key figure and main character of this story is just one person: Nikita Khrushchev. The evolvement and aggravation of the cold war situation is owing to him mainly. On one hand, his reforms made the Soviet Union determinant economically and strategically, on the other hand, he hindered diplomatic relations with his unpredictable and labile mentality, forcing the leaders of the great Western powers to stand on the defensive.
Attraction and profanity of abstract art and its role in creating lifelike virtual reality
There have always been people who hated abstract imagery, condemned it profane, degenerate, chaotic or inexpressive – so did Hitler for example -, but abstract has had a great deal of fans as well. Beyond coloured playfulness and the appeal to novelty, the secret of its popularity is that depicting unearthly spaces and dimensions gives some artworks a spiritual power of expression. The abstract art provides opportunity to create eye-catching fractal patterns, which can be found in nature, in art or in virtual space.
As we are proceeding in autumn, the scenery puts on more and more red and pink shades, darkness starts earlier and mornings turn cooler and cooler. Pumpkins and gourds have already appeared on greengrocers’ stands, and flower seller old women offer asters and rosehips. Deciduous plants have started their annual purifying cure, getting rid of their leaves. Chestnuts are falling, which is excellent material for making amorphous toy horses.
Basalt cliffs, wine terraces and Muses’ kisses
Badacsony. Our peculiar-shaped butte brings up a great deal of positive associations in our minds: a holiday at Lake Balaton, the taste of Badacsony wines (kéknyelű, szürkebarát), a joyful compotation with crackling cones, a walk on the mountainside covered with vine-plants, a tour among the basalt cliffs. All these will be evoked during a virtual trip on the slopes of Badacsony in our current exhibition.
Bathing and wellness culture at the beginning of the 20th century
Although beach-bathing – including sun- and air-bathing – was thought to have special healing and innovating power at the beginning of the previous century, beach-bathing served for relaxing primarily (just like today) and for surviving hot summer days. The wellness services of the period were ‘steam-chamber, electro bath, hydraulic massage’, pine-needle bath and relaxing in air-bath houses with breezy walls, built for air bathing.
Bathing is one of the oldest cultural possessions of mankind. Baths built on the territory of the former Pannonia could be the centres of social life; just think about Aquincum that must have been a real spa as ruins of several baths were found during excavations. Later even Christians used medicinal springs, and built cloisters and hospitals next to them, for example the healing place of the leper was Rudas Bath. But baths became really famous only later.
Beach-style – Swimsuit fashion from bathing costumes to bikinis
In our current exhibition, we are going to visit the lidos of the past century and find out how bathing suits became smaller and shorter. What beach fashion did our parents and grandparents follow? Who popularized the bikini that was regarded as a taboo initially? How did the atomic bomb and a strip dancer influence the swimsuit fashion? And how was it connected to James Bond and Star Wars? Our exhibition will give you the answers.
Beastly good places
It is difficult to say why a catering-industrial unit becomes popular, but it is certain that its name and location count a lot. Their names range on a wide palette from the logical ones – like Mókus (Squirrel) beer garden in Mókus Street – to the creative ones, like the Zokogó Majom (Sobbing Monkey) of Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca). Owners could think about naming as any marketing experts do nowadays: it must not be a trivial name. There is life beyond the classically simple ‘Pub’. This week we are inviting you to some beastly good places, from Squirrel to Honey Bear.
Beauty and beast, magic spaces, skulls and roses – The origin of ex libris theme world
Beyond introducing blazons, landscapes, street views, interiors and style world of ancient ages, bookplates reflect their values, ideas and culture as well. Although the classification of the theme world of bookplates is not an easy task – because of their variety -, it is not an impossible mission. We are going to highlight some of them, along the definition of the main bookplate theme groups, and reveal the cultural background and historical origin hiding behind the imagery.
Behind the camera: Elemér Révhelyi
Looking at Elemér Révhelyi’s photos, silhouettes of a varicoloured unique collection come up. His own photos are primarily related to buildings and cities designed by Jakab Fellner. However, his collection includes not only the Hungarian baroque architecture, but also well-known touristic sights of foreign cities. Our current virtual exhibition introduces ‘photographers’ of our database, first of all art historian Elemér Révhelyi. His heritage was placed in the Kuny Domokos Museum of Tata, according to his last will, and we would like to thank the Museum that they enriched our database.
Behind the camera: István Skoflek
In István Skoflek’s pictures, not only the figure of an enthusiastic local patriot is drawn but also his love of nature and collecting. Skoflek was not a professional photographer – just like Elemér Révhelyi – this is why his collection is so special. What architecture meant to Révhelyi was that nature meant to Skoflek. The common thing is Tata with a difference of a couple of decades. In our actual selection, you can skim through his pictures; his legacy is preserved by the Kuny Domokos Museum of Tata, whom we would like to thank for enriching our database.
Behind the camera: Sándor Bauer
Who is a photographer? An artist, who creates a new reality, or the one who documents it? Maybe the one, who modifies it according to their or others’ tastes? Probably all of them a little bit. This week, we have selected Sándor Bauer’s photos, whose life-work is exciting not only because he was a professional photographer, but also because he worked during the soft dictatorship of the Kádár era. Did he take propaganda photos? Naturally! Besides that, he shot many curiosities too. Café waitresses serving finely roasted cream coffee, a Fabulon-girl posing on the Fishermen’s Bastion and Mátyás Rákosi.
Birds from bird’s eye view
In the country, you wake up to the song of invisible birds and you slalom among tame pigeons in the city. Birds are part of your life, but still it is stunning that they form one of the largest classes of animals with 9900 species. There are 400 species in Hungary. We depend on them because people’s main nutriments come from the meat and eggs of the domesticated species. We also like watching the wild ones when walking in nature. Let’s see some curiosities about these winged creatures!
Black for wedding, white for mourning – colours of Hungarian folk costumes
Hungarian folk costumes are traditional clothes that ‘wear’ the characteristics and customs of different regions. The main territories are: Transdanubia, Upper Hungary (or Upland), the Great Plain and Transylvania. There are lots of regions within these territories, having their own folk costumes. The world of colours and motifs of these clothes are fairly varied. Durability was an important aspect when they were made, thus several generations were able to wear them – which is unfortunately unimaginable nowadays in the world of ‘fast fashion’.
One of the best occasions for taking city photos is when the sun is disappearing on the horizon or when it hasn’t appeared yet. The sky is blazing in the most beautiful shades of blue, the orange lights of the city have just been lit or they are still on. Plenty of this kind of photos can be found on the internet. Almost every second findings of the search word ‘Budapest’ were made during the ‘blue hour’. The blue colour of the sky is caused by the atmospheric light dissemination; without the atmosphere the sky would be black.
Book without title
A guest arrived at the Zrínyi Hotel of Balatonföldvár in June 1932. The already renowned author longed for solitude, because he did not have any privacy at home due to the guests attracted by his wife’s cooking. Naturally, he did not come only for that; his doctors wanted to cure his heart and he wanted to write. Ferenc Móra had a contract for a new novel, The Gold Coffin (Aranykoporsó). But he could not make progress with the work, actually he did not write a line of it yet, but the largest problem was that he did not have any idea. A decorative woman entertained him in the hotel professionally; their liaison has been well-known by literary history for a long time.
Nowadays, people frequent concerts at the Akvárium, while philharmonics prefer the Music Academy, but where did the people of the 19th century go out to, if they longed for amusement or music? In Pest, they went to the Redoute – opened in 1833, the predecessor of Pesti Vigadó – or to the Hungaria Hotel. Although the Vigadó had several functions; charity balls and gala parties were organised, but after all it was in Pest. The citizens of Buda did not like that, because the transport in the city was neither comfortable nor quick, especially in winter.
Development must go on! – as the phrase has it, but in practice we notice that it stops every now and then. The change – if it goes on its way – sometimes trends towards good, sometimes bad direction. It seems that it often stops completely without a state intervention. In case of certain changes, lucky circumstances (e.g. filling up of Rákos ditch) and sometimes misfortune play a role unfortunately (e.g. the disappearance of wines of Buda).
The starting points of every holiday at Balaton are good weather and a packed-up family with air mattress, sun-cream and chilled drinks. But what to do if it rains? If your plans are upset, choose a cultural program, which can compensate for the missed bathing. Choose something like the Festetics Castle of Keszthely. This week we are wandering in the Castle – with the assistance of Balaton Museum.
You are already humming the catchy and melodious Christmas tunes unintendedly, while the fish is lying in the fridge without scales, and you are kneading the dough of the Christmas cake because you don’t want to leave it to the last moment; the cabbage also must be here somewhere, and a part of the gifts that is lying around you hasn’t been packed yet, while the other part is still in the shops, though you promised yourself that this year would be different… Hey, stop for a moment! What about relaxing? And what about the cozy moments that films, adverts and postcards propagate?
Comradely greetings from Lake Balaton
We have already rested in cosy restaurant gardens sipping beer, watered wine or “Bambi” and walked under the shady trees of Margaret Island, visited the famous baths of the Monarchy, so now it’s time to go on holiday. How about Lake Balaton? Many of us first remember – besides the breathtaking coast – the “Zimmer Frei” apartments, the rammish smell of the corn on the cob – “maisbitte” – and the typical buildings of company resorts. Relaxing can be pleasant not only on the beach. Mountain lovers and rural thermal-bath-goers can also spend some nostalgic moments with the postcards and photos of our selection.
Count Gyula Andrássy and the Compromise
On 17 February 150 years ago, the Austrian Kaiser asked Count Gyula Andrássy to form his government and appointed him prime minister. The first responsible Hungarian government after the Compromise was established on 20 February, 1867. The dual monarchy that was born due to the Compromise consisted of the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary, with one emperor Franz Joseph I – Austrian Kaiser and Hungarian King.
Crimes at the turn of the century
Crime stories attract people’s attention; mysteries, thrill and scandals can always arouse great interest. It was not differently at the beginning of the 20th century either, as the great interest in the Elza Mágnás murder case shows – to mention a recently hyped case from the history of Hungarian criminalistics.
Cult of moustache
The moustache is a part of men’s facial hair that grows between the nose and the mouth. It is a secondary sex characteristic that also has an aesthetic function. In certain social groups, it is an identity creating power and a fashion phenomenon, a symbol that changes during history. They have a different role in the animal world: antennas and olfactory organs that help night animals, mainly felines and other small mammals. In the case of fishes (including catfish and carp) the moustache-like dermal pendants also serve sensing and orientation. You can even find birds with whiskers.
Cultural history of the Tatra Mountains – dragon bones, treasure hunters and sanatoria
The High Tatras are an Alpine holiday place that can be reached with a half-day journey from Budapest. They provide hiking and mountain climbing opportunities, fascinating peaks and clear fresh air. Tourism appeared in the 1820s at the feet of the Tatras, and splendid hotels of the Monarchy were built soon. Our virtual exhibition reveals how the common history of the massif and the people developed during the past couple of centuries.
Day of Hungarian Poetry
’Then why should I, a poet, study poetry? The wet star, that eye which swims upon the midnight eddy, may not with grace ascend the sky. Time oozes down, and I no longer suck the breast milk of fairytales; I quaff the real world in my hunger, whose foamy head is heaven's pales.’ (Quotation from Attila József’s Ars Poetica) Attila József’s question is not just a poetical question, because poetry is the life itself. The day of Hungarian poetry has been celebrated since 1964 on 11 April – Attila József’s birthday. We celebrate not only the poet, but also poetry and lyric. What is poetry and why should we commemorate it?
Demolished memories, lost buildings – Budapest
I would like to invite you to a short walk in Budapest. Let’s explore which is the most expensive bomb-site of Budapest and why. What kind of buildings stood on the places of hotels on the Pest-side bank of the Danube? How did the busiest or most important meeting-points of Pest – Deák Ferenc Square, Blaha Lujza Square, and Kálvin Square - transform? And why were the City Hall and a whole residential area of Buda demolished?
Demolished memories, lost buildings – chief towns, settlements
My previous article is continued now with moving the focus from the buildings and squares of Budapest to the buildings of chief towns and small settlements, which you cannot see anymore in the way they used to be 25, 50, 100 or more years ago. The article reveals what you can look upon in Győr and what the inhabitants of Kecskemét had to face when waking up on 8 July in 1911. I will also introduce some examples for the devastations of the Second World War outside Budapest.
Do you know what ’Zserbó’ is? The Vörösmarty’s maiden name
Zserbó, either it is classical or as my granny makes it at Easter, at Christmas, at birthdays. Briefly, anytime. Which came first: the goody filled with jam and walnut or the confectionery? You can find it out this week.
Do you want to play?
The history of toys is older that humanity, because mammals, mostly young animals can attend to an object that they promote to a toy for a long time. Toys were present in the ancient times and several relics remained from the period of first human civilisations. They were mainly models of adults’ everyday objects, arms or dolls and animal statuettes. They served and still serve as tools for roleplays: children can play the adults’ world with them. But let’s not go so far in the past, just 100-150 years ago.
Dunaújváros under construction
The notion of socialist city is related to the notion of industrial city closely. However, it was not easy to transform cities and adapt them to the new ideological system. Nevertheless, new industrial cities served as the socialist city type of the future – or rather, they could have served.
Endre Szász’s life – Master of book illustrations and porcelain panels
Endre Szász was an extremely versatile artist of the 20th century and had outstanding effects on fine arts. He was a painter, a graphic artist and a visual designer, a fashion and jewel designer, a porcelain painter and a master that lifted book illustration onto artistic levels. By favour of the Rippl-Rónai Museum of Kaposvár, an important graphic collection of Szász’s special artworks can be found in our database in digital format. We are going to study his adventurous life related to that.
Evolution of household appliances
Housekeeping is an ‘obligatory’ task, which could be rather burdening before the birth of the modern household. Our current virtual exhibition gives a short overview of the development how washing by hand was replaced by washing machines, mangle was changed by flat iron or sewing by hand gave place to sewing machines.
Ex libris means bookplate, a small multiplied graphic work pasted into the book, on the inside front cover, identifying the book owner. Typically, it contains the owner’s name or a symbol that refers to them or their gratifications. According to its original function, it identified the library where the book belonged to. Lots of graphic artists undertake creating bookplates even today, so the art-historical significance of ex libris labels is indisputable. The first bookplates decorated the books of Cardinal Thomas Wolsey and those of Willibald Pirckheimer. Pirckheimer’s bookplate was etched by Albrecht Dürer himself, who excelled both in wood-cutting and copperplate engraving techniques. Not surprisingly, ex libris – as a tiny work of art- became the object of collections in the course of time. Some proportion of them never gets into books, but remains stock of barter for collectors.
Fabulous picture postcards
The picture postcard is the descendant of the postcard without doubt. But who invented it and when – opinions are split about these questions. It was in 1865 when the thought of mailing by an open card without an envelope emerged on a mail congress. It was obvious, because the majority of mails contained only felicitations and simple greetings. So why should you waste expensive letter-paper if you wanted to greet your loved-ones?
They have been living close to us for about 10 thousand years. The earliest proof of humans and cats’ coexistence was found on Cyprus in a ca. 9,500 year-old tomb. Besides the human skeleton and smaller and bigger articles for personal use, the remains of a cat were also found. Cats are not autochthonous on the island; they might have arrived from the continent, probably from the area of the ’fertile crescent’, where domestication of cats must have happened first.
For Saint Nicholas day
The Hungarian name Miklós (and the English Nicholas) comes from the Greek name Nikolaos, its original meaning: triumph + people. Its registered versions separated from the ancient Hungarian nickname: Miksa, Mike, Mikes, Mikó and Nikolasz that was taken from English. Miklós was the 76th most frequented male name in Hungary in 2016. 136 children got it as a first name, but the English-sounding Nikolasz was more popular, 169 little boys got it.
Forint turned 70 this year
The prices of wheat and bread are increasing. The prices of feed, meat, milk and egg are increasing as well. The price of cold cuts is 10 forints higher than it was last week. The hail damage in fruiteries will cause shortage in apricot, plum and sour-cherry on the market, on the shelves, in the bottle, or they will be spoilt. Inflation – the depreciation of money – can be influenced by a lot of factors. The slow inflation can be felt by everybody, but the existence of it is important economically. But what did people feel, just after surviving the Second World War, when they had to face the chaos of hyperinflation?
From Bridge Society to Chain Bridge
Every bridge of the Danube has world fame because of its beauty, especially the Chain Bridge. Not surprisingly the famous guide-book of author Antal Szerb – A Martian’s Guide to Budapest – also starts from here. The Széchenyi Chain Bridge is the first permanent stone bridge over the Danube in Hungary. Its construction was preceded by fierce debates and a long awaiting time; it was finished by 1849 finally. The irony of fate is that the man who did the most for the bridge could never use it – because István Széchenyi spent his last years at the mental asylum of Döbling.
From Rome with love
Some people arrive there amorously and some fall in love there, with Rome mostly. What is the secret of the eternal city? It is pulsating but still so constant at the same time. Its air is so soft and thick that you feel an unexplainable hunger for getting to know it or seizing some of it. It shows a lot, but gives you little. Actually, it rather takes away, a piece of your heart certainly.
From the reindeer bone to the skating rink
It is a winter sport that can be done even without snow, and you can do it in the city-centre as well. You don’t need any special qualifications to do it; all you need is some courage, some experience and maybe some company. It is the ice-skating. Budapest and other major towns offer a lot of skating opportunities, but the most obvious solution when you take a fancy for skating is the City Park Ice Rink.
Go to Upper Hungary!
Loyalty and treason, strictly in Kuruc nostalgic mood, no matter in war or in love, they are almost the same. This week, we are roaming in Upper Hungary, introducing Krasznahorka, Lőcse, Bajmóc and Pozsony.
Go west! – The little history of Hungarian hiking
Probably, everybody longs for getting away from crowded cities to go out to the greenery, where you can take your heels on the never-ending countryside. For numberless tourist paths, into the nature, for lying in the grass, for fresh air, where you can nibble your picnic provisions – and of course you take back the litter to the city refuse bins. A hundred years ago, the situation was the same: people have always longed for being in the lap of nature – especially since urbanisation accelerated.
Gone-by New Year’s Eves
The last day of the year is always full of expectations, because the New Year might keep so many things: long-forgotten dreams, resolutions, bucket lists turn up and it is also a good feeling to close down and make an account of your achievements reached so far. A wide palette of traditions is related to the New Year’s Eve. According to superstitions, it is that time when you can do the most for your success in the New Year.
Greetings from the city of hard coal
The name of Komló has merged with coal mining; its heyday was during the 1950s as a socialist industrial city. In fact, mining started in the 18th century here, but the town got into the limelight when the furnace of Dunaújváros started to be built. Because they found suitable quality coking coal here, after a long search. What was the town like then? Allegedly, three things were never lacking meat, alcohol and hookers. We are dealing with the history of the city and miners’ life this week.
Gyula Juhász and his correspondents
Dear Readers, What novelty could be written about Gyula Juhász that you do not know yet? That Anna was not quite eternal? That this young man from Szeged was terrified in his whole life that he would become dement due to his imaginary syphilis, while he should have worried about his depression? The writer of these lines can only hope that you will not find these lines debunking and will read them with pleasure.
History locked in glass: from aurulent plate photos to grey glass negatives
Although it is natural now that you can take a photo in seconds, you rarely think about how rugged road led to quick photography and to the possibility of making good-quality photos. In the beginning, the incipient accomplishments achieved by inventors were considered as sensations, but later, the occurring deficiencies, new demands and fortunate circumstances resulted in the development of methods. At the dawn of photography, the invention of the silver-plated copper method as well as the glass plate negatives were regarded as an important milestone.
History of lighting technology
“The tirelessly searching human mind that can never rest has found the method with which it can outsoar the light of the inaccessible “sun” that allows it to conjure fairy light from dark skies and created daylight from the night. And all these immortal achievements have been reached by electricity that has been peeked and riddled from the secrets of nature.” – Kiskunhalas, 1898. Our weekly exhibition is going to guide you into the world of the development history of lighting technology, with the aid of archive photos from our database.
History of soft drinks
The rich water-supply of Hungary is legendary. Hungarians have the possibility of both swimming in waters and consume them. We are going to study the history of beneficial mineral waters and the soda-water – its maiden name was ‘szikvíz’ that means ’alkaline-water’ – and that of soft drinks made by the socialist industry.
The favourite confection of us all: we flavour our tea with it, spread it on bread, make cookies with it and use it for healing our sore throats. This is honey. You would not think that people in Hungary did apiary already a thousand year ago and partly due to that, a lot of folk beliefs and customs are related to apiculture. Our current article is about them, illustrated with ethnographic thematic records, apicultural and gingerbread tools from our database.
Hop Little Bunny
During the Easter period, the characteristic motifs of the feast – the egg, the lamb and the rabbit – always come into the limelight. Symbols that remained from pagan fertility rituals get on well with the Christian traditions and ceremonies. The Easter Bunny is very popular, but it is not the only famous rabbit. Let’s recall the bunny heroes of our childhood, without entirety, and let’s get to know real rabbits better as well.
In the beginning of the 20th century, it was already common knowledge that coffee trade is a profitable business. Coffee trader Henrik Fábri, returning from his journeys in England and the Far East, heard the call of tourism and wanted to establish a modern hotel next to the Western Railway Station (Nyugati pályaudvar) in Budapest. Our current virtual exhibition is introducing you the story of Hotel Béke, or by its maiden name: Hotel Britannia.
How not to feel cold in winter?
Cold weather has arrived, the quivering one. Now you can choose between huddling up against your sweetheart, your little pet or putting your warmest clothes. The road while people got from animals’ fur to faux fur and from hand-made hats to machine-knitted hats was long enough. To our actual selection, cardigans, fur-coats and muffs provide suitable temperature.
How were the once famous Hungarian hemp products made?
According to Iván Balassa’s disputed theory, Hungarians knew and grew hemp even before the conquest (9th century). Besides ropes and strings, they made accessory elements of clothes, like belts, from hempen fibre. This theory seems to be backed up by the fact that the Hungarian word “kender” is a loanword of ancient Turkish origin from the period before the Hungarian conquest. It is certain that indigenous Slavs in the Carpathian Basin already cultivated it in waterside settlements before the conquest.
Imagine that you are in 1970 and you take the tram in Lenin Boulevard (Teréz and Erzsébet Boulevards today) on a grey autumn day. What could be more relaxing after a tiring day than watching the neon signs sweeping by: Röltex, Patyolat, Ofotért, Orion, Közért. Many people have written about the development story of Hungarian brands and the adverts related to them. Some of them were forgotten long ago, but there are some that sound familiar still today. Now, we have gathered a couple in order to feel nostalgia without remorse.
Hungarian eastern – Stories of the outlaw
At the beginning of the 18th century, a new ’profession’ appeared on the Hungarian wasteland: the outlaw. They had a great influence on the culture history and the folk art of the period and later until today, inspiring folk art motives, folk songs and folk ballads. The role of footpads is still debated: were they Hungarian ‘Robin Hoods’, or just over-estimated criminals?
Hungarian razzle music history
This week, we are going on the razzle; that means we are evoking – with the aid of our database photos – how Hungarians enjoyed themselves in the past centuries, sometimes in delight, sometimes in sorrow. The Hungarian song and ‘gypsy music’ are almost synonyms, in addition, the most famous songwriters and musicians, virtuosos are gypsies. In our short music history, we are examining how this interaction developed, how the song become an entertaining genre – rooted in Hungarian folk music and heated by the romantic nationalism of the Reform Age.
Hungarian winter expelling festival, Busó-walking of Mohács
The oldest and most famous winter expelling carnival of Hungary – called ‘busó –walking’ of Mohács – is starting today. About 800 busós and 200 maskers are going to take their farewells of winter. The ‘busó-walking’ is a world-famous folk tradition of the Sokác (Croatian: Šokci) population in Mohács. The winter expelling and spring welcoming tradition can be found in the mythological world of other countries as well. It belongs to the family of protecting and fertility spell feasts.
Hygge, lagom, sisu – What do you need for happiness?
Preparations spent in festive ambiance are ahead of the weeks before Christmas, which does not necessarily means buying presents. In this period, you fire lights, tea lights, and candles in your home according to your taste; you are seduced by cookies easier; you chat with your friends with a mug of cinnamon flavoured tea or mulled wine in your hand, or read a book at home, or visit a Christmas fair.
I enjoy the beach so much…
Our gallery of the end of June reflects the actual general feeling: get out of the office and let’s go to the beach! There are plenty of opportunities to do that in Hungary: beaches of Lake Balaton and Lake Velence, Palatinus Lido in Margaret Island. We are giving a bit of heartache and show you free-minded people splashing around in the water or sunbathing, eating ice cream or watermelon on the beach.
Ice on the top
Many of us may think it is odd that people walked or even elected a king on the top of the ice on the Danube during the past centuries, but in those times it was not rare. Nowadays, the congelation of the river is almost unimaginable. There are several reasons for that, but the most important one is the river control
Ikarus - NABI success story, an excellent example of 'blue ocean strategy'
Once, Ikarus was one of the biggest bus manufacturer companies in the world, which reached its production peak in 1984, with more than 13 thousand vehicles produced. Ikarus 260 is among the world’s top-selling buses with 75,547 manufactured buses. With its success stories, it set a good example to the corporate sector in how you can compete with real value-profile development that daringly differs from the narrow-minded competition that focuses on rivals and operates with petty modifications.
The past of Vienna merged with the Hungarian history inseparably. It was a symbol of suppression and of liberty as well. This week, we are guiding you to the imperial city; with a gastro panorama and the Sacher cake, and the inevitable Advent market, but the famous Viennese sights cannot be skipped either.
In Gothic mood in Budapest
Architects of buildings that bear the style marks of ancient periods, who constructed buildings in a style that was considered anachronistic in Budapest around the turn of the century, could not even presume that their creations would become the emblematical symbols of the city and would attract a spate of tourists from all over the world.
Indiana Jones on the Hungarian wasteland
Is there anybody who as a child did not think about becoming an archaeologist? Or played treasure hunt or admired Indiana Jones? Archaeology includes the excitement of exploration and the quenchless human thirst for searching the past. Our database contains many photos in the topic of archaeology, from fieldwork to object photos. Our current virtual exhibition was composed by them. Moreover, the 3D models of findings can be taken in your hands and turned over virtually.
Keep out moustache, here comes the beard
The beard is the fur that grows on men’s faces. It covers the lower part of the face and the chin; it can even reach the neck. The area between the mouth and the nose is called a moustache. The beard had crucial functions even in the prehistoric ages. It kept the face warm, protected the mouth from dirt and it also frightened away enemies. During history, it was the symbol of masculinity and potency. It also represented and still represents a kind of coherency among men wearing a beard. Jowls can be found on certain mammals too: for example dogs, goats.
Similarly to gates, keys have important metaphoric meanings; either it is about things of key importance, key figures or the key of solution. Besides using them as metaphors, different kinds of keys play key roles in engineering and technical aspects in our culture as well: limiting unauthorized access, protecting the private sphere, and they also allow us to close up or hide things. Although modern keys are not as decorative as their medieval peers were, they are just as essential as their “ancestors” were, regarding functionality.
Knightly armours, crowns, lions and naked swords: the origin of the theme world of blazons
As of ancient times, members of human communities have aspired to show somehow their belonging to a relational, ethnic, religious group, or their status in the group. The appearance of blazons can be related mostly to the tradition of making personal emblems and seals, which goes back to the Bronze Age. Using a strategic identifier as a sign spread in the era of knights in the 12th century. In the beginning, it was necessary due to military technological reasons.
There is no settlement without a Kossuth statue, street or square in Hungary. According to Erzsébet Reznák, director of the Kossuth Museum of Cegléd, his bronze or stone statue is the most frequent sculpture type that stands on public places. Where does his first public statue stand, and why is the city of Cegléd so special? This week’s assortment unveils the answers.
Lake Velence, the lake of sunshine
After the gastro-tour at Balaton, we are wandering towards another frequented summer destination. Lake Velence became a popular touristic centre primarily because of its nearness and its slowly-deepening sandy beaches. The lake was not always this gentle and peaceful, at the beginning of the 20th century its surface was hardly visible due to the thick reed. The area was threatened by becoming a moorland, and by floods and drying as well. Fortunately, none of these dangers menace today, all you have to do is enjoy the lukewarm water and the fine sand under your soles.
Largest department store – largest selection - Corvin
An attractive meeting point for some, the modern-age temple of consumption for others, a real monster that incorporates people, inciting their thirst for possessing. The malls that is to say western-type shopping centres spread after the change of regime; until then, department stores had had the main role in Hungary. In their heydays, there was the Úttörő (Pioneer), the Verseny (Competition) and later the Skála (Scale) and the Centrum (Centre). The first Hungarian department store, which could be only a distant cousin of the main character of our exhibition, was already built for our demand of shopping everything at the same place. Let’s see how their story went.
Legend of the Christmas tree
The resin scent of the Christmas tree and the stinging pine needles during decoration are determinant memories of our childhood. In the 1990s, plastic pines spread and nowadays there are different environmentally friendly creative solutions to replace pine trees with branches and pallets. However, the classical sawn trees or the living pines are the most popular. In our virtual exhibition, we are going to find out why the pine tree became the indispensable accessory of Christmas.
Legendary confectioneries – the Hauer
I remember that the shop-window of confectionery Hauer on Rákóczi Road preserved its upper middle class feature even when it was faded and abandoned. Many times and many authors wrote about the Rákóczi Road: how it lost its pedestrian nature, after the construction of the underground and the disappearance of the tramway. In its present form, it is rather a highway, especially between Keleti railway terminal and Blaha Lujza Square. Who would like to ambulate and watch shop-windows beside such a busy road? In fact, there is not much to see indeed. However, its heyday was not very long ago; it was considered a real commercial centre in the 1970s – just think about the department stores Verseny, Csillag, Lottó, and Corvin. However, its earlier golden age was after the inauguration of Keleti (eastern) railway terminal in 1884, when apartment palaces, tenement houses, restaurants, hotels and confectioneries were built one after the other. This week we are evoking the history of confectionery Hauer, the emblematic place on Rákóczi Road.
Legendary confectioneries – the Ruszwurm
There is a street in the Buda Castle, where you can find both beautiful things to see and delicious things to eat. The confectionery is a listed monument and its supply is legendary. The latest part of our series is introducing the Ruszwurm confectionery.
Legendary railway carriages
George Stephenson would be amazed that his invention rather drifts than sweeps nowadays, just think about the magnetic levitation train Maglev. Inventing the steam engine caused a serious change, – not only in transport – because it created a new way of perceiving space and time, as the notions of distance and time of travelling changed at the same time. Stephenson’s locomotive was received with strong doubts. People thought its flame might put houses on fire, while others just thought that it was a machine pulled by the devil. Our current virtual exhibition brings back the nostalgia of famous railway carriages that ran in Hungary as well.
Let it be red
Red is the first colour of the rainbow, a prime colour, which means that it cannot be created from other colours. If you mix red with yellow you get orange, with blue you get violet, which are secondary colours. When using graphics programs, you get the perfect red colour under the hexadecimal number #FF0000 or by giving the RGB value 255, 0, 0. But what kind of connotations do people associate to this colour?
Let’s go camping!
The excitement of camping belongs to our most beautiful childhood experiences. Putting up the tent, nestling in, roasting bacon in the evening, fighting with mosquitos, listening to noises of the night, playing with the torch. If the weather is rainy, it makes the adventure even more exciting. Queuing at the bathroom or just simply having a bath in the lake.
Lifestyle images from the era of World War I
One of the biggest wars of world history was the First World War, in which 70 million soldiers participated, and it ended with the death of more than 15 million people and the re-division of the colonial- and interest systems of the period. In this week’s exhibition, we are introducing photos from the period of the World War I, selected mainly from the archives of the Hungarian Franciscan Library and Archives.
Little Italy in Bárdibükk – Mária Goszthony’s art
At the time of the emancipation movements of the 20th century, more and more female artists made their appearances, for example Mária Goszthony. Her creative activity and taste became one with her years spent in Italy inseparably. You can read about her life and oeuvre in our current composition. Owing to the Rippl-Rónai Megyei Hatókörű Városi Múzeum of Kaposvár, you can find her heritage in our database as well.
Everyone likes winning, and probably even more likes playing. In our next selection, we are looking into the history of the sixty-year-old lottery. How we got to the modern lottery from the small games, from unlicensed gambling rooms to television broadcastings? The fluctuant prejudice of gambling still exists. While a class-draw was organized to fund the Millennial Exhibition in 1896, all forms of gambling were banned and kept in secret after the Second World War.
Vivid life on the market, enticing scents, piles of vegetables and fruits that either attract or deter you. Juicy gossips get on well with the market price of potatoes in this cavalcade, as well as the unmistakable voices of costers bargaining among rows with nosing chaps sneaking tiny goods. Our selection is going to show you not only the markets of Budapest, but also the rural ones: from the legendary Nagycsarnok (Great Hall) to the Vásárcsarnok (Market Hall) of Pécs.
Marlboro Man in the Eastern Bloc
Inhaling the smoke of tobacco leaves, which is often mentioned as ‘brown gold’, has a cultural history of about 5-7000 years. Smoke can be made by a pipe, a cigar, a cigarette or a nargile, but people consume tobacco in the form of taking snuff or maccabaw and chewing quid as well. How did smoking become an inevitable part of our cultural history? How did Hungary ascend to the top of tobacco industry and how did it vanish slowly? This short resume about the history of smoking is going to shed light on the questions.
Masterpieces from the golden age of banknote designing
Pengő and korona were regarded as real masterpieces with their special banknote designing solutions in artistic aspects. Beyond the meticulously elaborated patterns that reflect the sophisticated graphical-artistic culture of the period, their speciality is that their portraits show not only famous persons (like Sebestyén Tinódi Lantos) but also common people, for example Palóc girl from Bény Valéria Rudas, and Rózsi Tóth on the 5 pengő banknotes, or Lúcia Lendvay from Székesfehérvár, who posed on the 1 billion millpengő banknotes. Despite their anonymity, the persons of “money models” sometimes got into the focus of media and public interest.
Matriculation exam, what are you?
How can an examination make you an adult at one blow? Anyway, what does it mean to be mature? People tend to underestimate the final examinations just as many other things. “Come on, what is it?” – says somebody who did it a decade ago. This week, we are getting in nostalgic mood again. What kind of matriculation memories do you have?
Medieval skyscrapers - Gothic cathedral giants
In the Middle Ages, the main role of constructing thick walls was to hold the heavy roofing, which had a drawback: little natural light could enter in the buildings through the relatively small windows. Strangely, the Gothic architectural innovations that brought the role of light to the fore were not inspired by practical aspects primarily, but by theological views and the descriptions of the celestial city found in the Book of Revelation. It says that at the end of the world, a city will descend from heavens; a city with high walls decorated with colourful gemstones, which has golden roads, where the shining of divine glory will be seen.
Memories from the Ottoman-Turkish Era
After the Turkish occupation, under their subjection, the fate of the Hungarian Kingdom took a completely different direction, while the earlier Hungary was one of the most significant countries in Europe. The ultimate goal of all the Hungarian kings was to rule in a powerful and independent state, but after the occupation of Buda, only hope remained. During more than a hundred years, two great-power centres decided upon the future of Hungary: first in Istanbul and then in Vienna.
More than 77 Hungarian folk tales
Everyone can remember the little bird that sings authentic Hungarian flower motives, for the melody of the Hungarian band Kaláka and the sound of flute in the theme song. You can also recollect Gyula Szabó’s tale-telling voice and ‘my tale’, which would have lasted longer if the 6-8-minute playing time had not finished.
Myths, legends and a bit of history – The second cup of coffee
This week we are having another dip in the coffee stream. In the first cup, there was a pinch of plantation, a dash of roasting and some fine grinding. Finally, we got a cup of hot drink with gentle taste with the aid of some hot water, according to our demands. Now, we are going to flick in the world of history and legends, brisked by the stimulant effect of coffee.
Travelling by a narrow-gauge railway, how exciting it is! It brings back all those pleasant experiences: an excursion in a forest or a journey on a special children’s railway, or pioneers’ railway for the older ones. This week, we give you a virtual ticket to Hungary’s different light trains. All aboard!
National Exhibition and Fair of Pécs in 1907
There was a feast in Pécs 110 years ago today, because the National Exhibition and Fair of Pécs in 1907 was organised on this very day. The expo that attracted almost a million visitors aimed to introduce the trade, agriculture, home industry and art of Hungary to the general public – according to its rules – and to strengthen the relationships between producers and consumers. It was not a well-known fact that the construction of a culture palace in Pécs depended on the incomes of the fair. Although the expo was successful, Pécs did not get the palace.
National memorial place from public cemetery
Cemeteries are not just places that can be interpreted on the emotional level of passing or mourning. There are graveyards that became pilgrimage destinations in the past decades, like the Házsongárdi of Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca), the Père-Lachaise of Paris, or the Fiumei Road Graveyard. This week, through the history of the latter, we are searching for the answer to the question ‘How it became a National Pantheon from a public cemetery?’
New bread and fireworks for the people
On 20th August, Hungarians have already celebrated St. Stephen, the new bread and even the new constitution. It is not surprising that feasts have their own lives too. Probably at their birth it is clear who or what event they are devoted to celebrate, but as time passes by, they are expanded with other senses of meaning or they become forgotten. Just imagine how King St. Ladislaus of Hungary would have been surprised if he had found himself among people celebrating the new constitution in the 1950s.
Regarding the location of the city, it is not a plain nor a highland. It did not witness big battles nor peace treaties. It is not a historical city, but it does not want to seem to be. Strangely, strong stereotypical attributes are connected to the city and the county. Whether it is a curse, we are going to find it out from this week’s collection.
Olympics will be here soon. For many of us it is pure excitement, baggy eyes and daily routine timed to the Hungarian team’s appearance. It is an event that sticks people in front of the telly, even those who are not real sport fans. There are newsreel excerptions in our collection, reporting from the Berlin Olympic Games in 1936, but you can also see parts of the London Olympics in 1948, about Olga Gyarmati’s triumph, who won Hungary’s second gold medal on the competition. You can browse among Olympic badges and stamps issued in the honour of our winners. Besides that, you can see the Olympic relics and medals of gymnast Olga Törös, fencer Zoltán Horváth and Áron Szilágyi and wrestler István Majoros. Finally, you can find out about the hopes of the person who revived the idea of Olympics, and answer for the questions: which were the most troublesome Olympic Games and when was the Hungarian team the most productive.
Once and now; a walk in the Buda Castle
The Buda Castle is our emblematic building. During its stirring history, it was under siege at least as many years as it was left abandoned and ruined. Renovations and reconstructions, enlargements and breakdowns formed it to its present shape, which is owing to the reconstruction from the 1960s to 1985. We do not want to make judgements or answer architectural historic questions. This week’s ‘once and now’ selection is about the demolished, transformed or miraculously saved parts of the palace complex. Have a nice browsing!
Operation of the secret service: acting, ideal places and methods
The organised secret services came into existence because of the needs related to counter-espionage. As the intelligence service employed militarily under-qualified spies occasionally until the second half of the 19th century, who did not work according to unified plans and organised frames in addition, thus pieces of information obtained from them often were not reliable. After a certain period, the lack of organised secret services became increasingly obvious.
Pálinka, my love…
Pálinka is appetizer before a family lunch, mood enhancer on a friendly party, an obligatory turn at celebrations, and it’s an insult to reject – though this latter is just a bad habit. Hungarians have a saying that means ‘Good morning with pálinka!’ and there are many other ‘nicknames’, you can call it: ‘fence-ripper’ (kerítésszaggató), ‘don’t-tousle-me’ (nerángass) or ‘my grandpa’s muter’ (nagyapám némítója). What you can use for making jam, you can also use for making pálinka – that’s how our old saying goes. You can even still beetroot or poppy-seeds.
Panem et circenses
The amphitheatres of the Roman Era offered a completely different kind of circuses than the ones you can see nowadays. Certainly, stepping into the ring back then must have been much more dangerous than it is today. Life and death fights were going on there between men and animals mixed. Presumably, many of you have an idea of that, as Ridley Scott’s Gladiator provided some hints about it. The word ‘circus’ originates from the Latin ‘circus’ and the Greek ‘kirkos’. It means circle or ring.
Past and present of the beach food movement at Lake Balaton
All of us, Hungarians have experiences of the gastronomy at Lake Balaton: about the retro hamburgers, the Hungaricum ‘langosh’ (lángos) and the present beach food gastro-revolution too. The catering of Balaton beaches is so much a determinative segment of the Hungarian culture that even cult films were made about it: Zimmer Feri (by Péter Tímár) or Szezon (by Ferenc Török). In our exhibition we are going to review how an impoverished region became the most popular holiday location in nearly a hundred years and how we got from the langosh-frying huts to the culinary delights served on the coolest terraces of the country.
Past of Pécs
Although we know a lot about the past of Pécs, the truth is sometimes distorted by biased or inaccurate historical sources. For example, Vandals – who invaded also the ancient territory of Pécs – had a much more developed culture, similarly to the conqueror Hungarian mounted nomads, than certain professional sources claim. As Ottomans did not settle down in great strength in Hungary after the occupation, the period of the Ottoman occupation was not an era of decay and destruction either. One of the best examples for that is Pécs, which was enriched with several emblematic buildings and valuable relics in this period.
Glove manufacturing has a 300 year-old past in Pécs: gloves have been made here since the middle of the 18th century. The family Hamerly built a factory that was well-known throughout Europe in the 19th century. After the Second World War, the nationalized glove factory became one of the most important mills in the world. Nowadays, seven minor glove manufacturing private firms are operating in the city, united in a cluster.
Photography bloopers and manipulations
We have compiled a bizarre photo-historical assortment for this week, with old portrait-, tableau- and genre photos that went wrong somehow, either technically or due to a careless motion or blink. As they had the chance for only one click that time, the failure of the process resulted that these photos show unlaboured moments to the curious eyes of the future.
Pinball, billiards and table football
Our need for play is eternal. Many people remember only certain toys from their ‘idyllic’ childhood that became sugar-coated during the years. Rocking horses, stuffed animal toys, red bicycles. But what about our later games? Everybody felt the usefulness of slot machines in catering industrial units, which could save countless parties from drowning in boredom. This week, we have selected photos of skill games like pinball, table football or billiards that has a long history.
Places and dramas of waiting
Despite that you often think life is too short to spend it waiting, you do spend a great deal of time on waiting during your lives. According to statistics, one spends on average three years with queuing. Either it is queuing or other kind of waiting, they are all manifestation forms of social adaptation, which are organic parts of your lives and culture.
Pop-stars on leaflets and pamphlets
The institutes uploading to our database digitise a lot of leaflets, pamphlets, invitation cards, posters, flyers and postcards. Not all of them represent important art historical values, but they are essential from the point of local history researches. How did our parents and grandparents amuse and improve themselves? These printed materials can tell stories about that too.
Power-plant tuned for culture
The socialist heritage is a ‘heavy’ one not only in the industrial aspect. Filling the space after the closed establishments, or rather replacing them with new functions is a challenge that not only Hungary has to face. There are good examples to follow: in Vienna, where Gasometer was converted into flats, or in Germany, where the Ruhr area managed to switch from industry into culture. In Hungary, the former Ganz factory was replaced by the Millenáris as an ideal solution. It seems as if the 20-year-long sufferings after the shutdown of the former ironworks have ended and the people of Ózd can occupy the renovated Power-plant and Blowing Engine-house again, but not in the usual way.
Preserve, jam and pálinka
Zesty fruits are part of the summer, but it is worth preserving them so that you can avoid thinking of them with nostalgia in winter. We are going to get into the story of fruit preserving and jam making among preservation methods. As a matter of curiosity, the science of jam making is at least as ancient as brewing. You can easily access to recipes as well, because our collection contains a cookbook or rather an electuary book, and you can get familiar with cooking tools too.
Ramblings in breweries
In the hot summertime, there isn’t a better thing to do than to drink a pint of cold beer on your favourite terrace. Though Hungary is rather a vine-producing than a beer-brewer country, it has four historical breweries that produce more than 6 million hectolitres of beer a year. Take a bottle of your favourite bitter hop-drink in your hand and let’s have a closer look into the small Hungarian beer history, along these four factories – with a little outlook.
Furnishing is good, especially if you can express your creative energies in your own homes. Some choose from the selection of the Swedish store chain, others make their flats cosier by rethinking granny’s cupboard set. Many of you must remember the original shapes of retro furniture: besides sticky faux leather armchairs or varnished wardrobe sets, the legendary shell-shaped red armchair is still a designer item. For the interior decorators and designers of the 1970s and 1980s, filling the interior spaces of blocks of flats with new forms must have been a real challenge. However, the results speak for themselves. Réka cupboard set, Pillangó (Butterfly) sofa or the star of the ‘60s Erika chair are still living with us. This week, we invite you to a furniture expo with Sándor Bauer’s photos.
Retrospective bicycle tour
The bicycle is one of the most useful inventions of mankind: everybody uses it from children to elderly people, in cities and in the country. You can ride it anywhere, it is environmentally friendly and it keeps you fit. Great deals of artworks were inspired by the bicycle. Just think of the famous film of the Italian neorealism The Bicycle Thief, the classic Queen song Bicycle Race or Pink Floyd’s Bike. But of course the bicycle was not built in a day; you can find its predecessors on the battlefields of ancient times. Bicycle history traces back its ancestor with transporting function in the beginning of the 19th century.
Sacred or profane? Nudes in fine arts
Depicting naked human bodies is an ancient need of art; this need can be self-knowledge, scientific curiosity, attraction to beauty or arousal of thirst. A nude can be a study, a practice, a realistic image aspiring objectivity, or a figure that bears the artist’s marks or an allegory by chance. All these depend on the approach of the age, the artistic style, the artist’s personality and intentions. Our exhibition and gallery will show how these things developed in painting and photography mostly.
Science of jugglery and its legendary Hungarian masters: Rodolfo and Houdini
Magicians and illusionists exploit the deficiencies of human thinking and perception with their tricks, creating the illusion of supernatural skills. Although wizardry cannot be learnt by practising magic tricks, certain dangerous spectacles, for example escaping, allow you to develop such amazing attributions like bravery or the ability of overcoming panic in extremely stressful situations.
Secrets of winter
It is true that winter arrives with the longest night of the year, the winter solstice, in the astronomic sense. It comes at the end of December in the north of the equator, but according to the common conception, if weather is cold enough winter is already here!
Serial costume history 1 (1850-1900)
The second half of the 19th century was the beginning of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy period and the late Victorian era. This was the time of the American civil war, the colonisation rivalry and the second industrial revolution. The time of grandiose dress creations: the ladies’ spectacular appearance has been still recalling the typical nostalgia for the period. On the other hand, gentlemen’s costumes did not really differ from formal attires of today’s men. With the portrait photos of our database, we are going to show what kind of clothes they wore during these decades.
Serial costume history 2 - The Belle Époque
In the second part of our fashion historical review, we are going to study the clothes of the turn of the century and the 1910s. Women abandon clumsy hoops and stiff corsets; uncomfortable decorations are replaced by practical common sense and elegant simplicity. We can owe these mainly to reform-costumed artistesses, suffragettes and to Coco Chanel. Our selection is dominated by female portraits, because men held on to the so far acknowledged elegancy; their clothes did not change a lot.
Serial costume history 3 – The Gatsby style and trousered divas
In the third part of our fashion historical review, girls of the twenties and thirties were already working and having fun carefreely. Both activities required comfortable clothes. Flapper girls with bob haircut danced Charleston on dance-parties. Masculine characteristics appeared on women’s clothes; Marlene Dietrich proved that even trousers could be feminine. Gentlemen already without beards wore suits, bow-ties and varied hats.
Short statue walk in Budapest
In our virtual exhibitions, we have already written about buildings in Budapest, which were demolished and which were built in their places. This time, we continue with statues that guard memories of the past. Besides the most important creators of the Hungarian memorial sculpture, the adventurous lives of statues will also be mentioned. It is surprising that although this field of sculpture was flourishing in the 19th century, its beginning is not related to the birth of a statue, but that of a pamphlet.
Slide film history
In our virtual exhibition, we are going to study the history of slideshows and slide-projectors from the several-thousand-year-old invention of shadow plays and Leonardo da Vinci’s camera obscura to the prosperous optical industry of the 20th century. We are going back to the cambered cartoon slide projectors that existed in most households as of the 1950s and the colourful board and later plastic boxes filled with reels, from which it felt so good to select those bedtime stories.
Small investors in the world of stock exchange speculators and riggers
In the golden age of stoke-broking in Hungary, simple citizens’ investments and shares also had a great role in many success stories (like Vígszínház) and in the realisation of numberless giant investments. The widespread stoke-broking culture and the judgement of self-interest and greediness reached their present forms as a result of several contradicting historical and cultural effects.
Small reflection of Debrecen: the album Gondy-Egey
On the occasion of the day of Hungarian photography, we have been picking from the photos of the legendary photographer duo of the 19th-century Debrecen Károly Gondy and István Egey. The reorder-book saved almost 40 thousand pictures, of which nearly 2 thousand are accessible in our database as well. The material in the album is not only a social depiction but also the revival of the 19th-century Debrecen with actresses’ and noblemen’s portraits and inevitable family photos.
Some like it hot – Coffee in black and white
’It is coffee that makes people’s day living around me nicer.’ Many of us feel the same way. In the latest decades, it became an essential motor of our modern world. It wakes you up in the morning, it shakes you up during the day, and you have it when chatting with old friends whom you have not seen for ages. It has very important social and economic roles, and its effects on health are researched in several aspects. But do you know it indeed?
The bitter weather of winter is over and as you feel less and less cold in the morning, you take out your spring overcoats and shoes from the deep of wardrobes. First, snowdrops and crocuses spring up from the soil; buds appear on trees and bushes – and you hope that an unexpected frost does not spoil the yearly apple and plum yield. Nature is waking up, migratory birds return to their abandoned nests.
Stairs and staircases have at least as much metaphorical power as roads have. At the first step, you are still uncertain about the way they take you, but even the ‘journey’ itself promises an exciting adventure. A highlight of the presently popular guided historical city walks is roaming in unknown houses. People who love constructed environment can walk through them from cellar to attic even if it is a mansion or a baronial building.
Stakhanov’s fake party legend and the real origin of Stakhanovism
In order to map the cultural-historical origin of the Stakhanovite movement you have to look back until the age of the industrial revolution. Based on unveiled pieces of information, analyses, facts and party-secretary statements, it is likely that the event, during which Stakhanov produced his allegedly legendary performance, was the pre-planned, thoroughly calculated action of the Soviet communist party, and its real goal was to introduce the production-organisation principles of the western world and to increase productivity.
Star photos of actresses
For a long time, women were not allowed on stage; actually going to the theatre was not considered as a proper activity for women. Until the 17th century, men used to play women’s roles as well. The audience could really refresh when they did not have to wait for the actor in the female role, because he had to shave first. Naturally, we know famous actresses from earlier times, but the truth is that they were not judged better than prostitutes were. Instead of praising their talents, the posterity thought it is more interesting to find out if they became concubines of a king or a lord.
Stars of fashion photos
Fashion and I have had a rather ambivalent relationship with one another since the beginning. When I was a little girl, I had to try on dresses created by my grandma five times a day; I could have felt like a real model, but of course, I did not. Besides the inconvenience of trying, I saw models only in magazines and I did not really understand even then why they posed so oddly for the sake of a pullover. However, I adored the Hungarian star mannequins inconditionally; naturally, I did not know how they were called. This week, you can browse among pictures of fashion shows and fashion photos, with Ági Pataki, Bea Schmidt and Sztenya Bodó.
Staying prepared since 1912
Youth movements did not start with scouting, as religious groups, self-developing clubs, self-organising teams have always existed. But we do not know any other popular movements that had such a great influence on the youth and that still exists. Its unbroken popularity is owing to its basic principles like openness; because anybody could join the scout movement regardless of origin, social situation or religion. Probably, its independence from politics also did good to the movement. It was not easy to ignore politics when certain youth movements were considered by the public as child-sections of the Party.
Story of the Valley and the collection of the Kapolcs Club
In the spring of 1985, a red Zhiguli stopped in the middle of a street in Kapolcs, in front of Elli Márvány’s gate, got out of the car and asked: “Is there a house for sale in the village?” He was lucky, because a very nice little peasant house became vacant those days, so they went to see it and bought it immediately. This was how Kapolcs met István Márta and it was followed by the formation of Kapolcs Club and the Valley of Arts. With this exhibition we are going to introduce the beginnings of the Kapolcs Festival and the collection of Kapolcs Club.
Ten curiosities about the Hungarian sparkling wine production and about champagne maker Törley
You can drink it when you are happy or sad, but mostly on special occasions and on New Year’s Eve of course. The champagne is in the focus of our current compilation.
That’s how the thousand-year-old Hungary celebrated
1896 was the year of the Millennium definitely. The whole country was in a fever. Special and exciting events followed one another: inauguration of the Vígszínház and the Museum of Applied Arts, launch of the Underground, Árpád Feszty’s cyclorama and the New York Coffee House on the grand boulevard (Nagykörút) were also ready. There were places for entertainment as well, for example ‘Ős Budavára’ (Ancient Buda Castle) was a famous hall in the era, where elated moments were not only due to alcohol. Adventure-seekers could admire the urbanizing Budapest in Louis Godard’s hot-air balloon from above. Our gallery includes the pavilion of the Transport Museum, Grand Duke Joseph’s pavilion and the Trade Hall, which cannot be seen anymore, but its base and flooring was reused and a famous youth leisure centre of Budapest operated on its place until 2015. It was not only the capital city that celebrated. On the occasion of the millennial feasts, memorial monuments were erected on seven places that were significant regarding the Hungarian state founding, for example: Zimony (Zemun), Brassó (Brasov) and Pannonhalma.
The Austrian-Hungarian Riviera
Sunshine, clear salty water, picturesque rocks and mountains above the coast. These are primary conditions of a real holiday by the sea – our great-great-grandparents knew that already. Our exhibition is going to show you the most popular holiday resorts of the Adriatic Sea during the period of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy and the charming towns of Abbázia (Opatija), Lovran and Cirkvenica (Crikvenica). You are going to see where the cream of the Monarchy went to toast themselves.
The best pictures of adventurous festivals
People have always searched for occasions when they could take part in social experiences, either ancient pagan rituals, early Christian meetings, field jamborees of the 1800s or festivals of the modern age. But why is feasting good? – you can ask. Besides amusement and the possibility of leaving your comfort zone, the recreation with picturesque environment, art and adventurous experiences might help you obtain a refreshing new way of seeing things.
The craft of glass painting and the legacy of Miksa Róth
Glass painting started in the 11th and 12th centuries, but its real renaissance was in the 13th, which is related to the overruling of the Gothic style. In our present exhibition, besides reviewing the history and method of glass painting, we have selected some documents from Miksa Róth’s legacy that is preserved by the employees of the MTA (Hungarian Academy of Sciences) Centre for Social Sciences, and which has been made accessible in digitised form in our database.
The crown of Mecsek to be reopened
The four-star Hotel Kikelet has not received guests since the fall of 2015. Owner Ferenc Scheffer said then that he had been offering the hotel for sale for three years, and no buyers had turned up until then. The neighbouring Da Vince Private Clinic announced this year that it had purchased the former hotel redolent of age, where they would like to develop a hotel department for patients, a policlinic with 16 surgeries and offices. Besides operating a wellness section, they also want to form a physiotherapy room and to launch physiotherapy treatments. They are planning to open the restaurant and terrace – one of the most beautiful ones in Pécs – not only for the Da Vinci patients but also for the general public.
The early period of nature study
Nature study was the common name of the following sciences: zoology, botany, mineralogy, petrology and palaeontology in the 18th and 19th centuries, and it mostly consisted of collecting, systematising and expounding knowledge based on observations. As the expression ‘nature study’ became old-fashioned after the uprise of sciences based on experiments in the 20th century, the denomination ‘natural science’ replaced it. In this week’s virtual exhibition, we have chosen some quotations and illustrations from the natural study works of old times.
The fairy garden of Budapest
Summer and good weather are here and you could have a pleasant day if you chose to walk along Margaret Island in the heart of Budapest. You couldn’t do this 250 years ago, because the island was in possession of the church and then became the palatine’s holiday resort. It was the ranch of rollicking artists for a long period, like a kind of ‘artistic colony’; many of their literary works were born under the oak trees of the island. It is a paradise for spa lovers, the gathering place of professional sportspeople, amateur runners and outdoor yoga practicing persons.
The German officer, the jazz songstress and the New York Hotel
As history goes on, there are always winners, survivors and also losers among the participants unfortunately. Sometimes, fortune stands by us in unexpected situations. The survivors of this story were Leonhard Scheller, the German military officer, Kató Fényes, the popular jazz songstress and all the people whom they rescued in the war together. The New York Hotel was a survivor and winner as well, and the biggest loser of the story was the Hungarian jazz.
The history of aviation
Who has never dreamt of flying? Humans have been longing for flying from times immemorial. The most important stages of the Hungarian history of aviation were documented not only by written records. They are revived by contemporary photos and newsreels: zeppelins, world-war bombers and hydroplanes. For example, photos prove that the idea of Zeppelin’s famous airship is actually the Hungarian Dávid Schwarz’s merit. In the 1920s, the Danube had important hydroplane traffic as well besides the ship transport, moreover on Lake Balaton, too. Our pilots conquered the sky not only above Hungary: László Almásy, our famous Africa explorer stood in front of the camera with the Pyramids of Giza in the background. After World War II, aviation was run by Maszovlet on the basis of an agreement with the Soviet Union and Hungary. Malév (the Hungarian Airlines) was established on 25 November 1954 and operated as an emblematic company of Hungary until 2012
The history of sleighing and skiing
December. Usually, the first snow falls down this time and lakes may freeze in as well. The snow-cover thickness record of 151 cm that fell in the area of Kőszeg in February 1947 could not be overpassed since then. A lot of snow fell during the 20th century, for example there was a memorable snowfall in 1987. What did people of the 20th century do in wintertime? Let us see it now!
The hundred-year-old Gellért
Gellért Hotel can be conceived as a kind of time capsule, because it can show its past one hundred years: the detailed elegance of the twenties, the burden of war, modernisation efforts of the seventies and today’s world of taste through gastronomy at one place at the same time. After many years of planning and a long-continued construction due to the First World War, the building redolent with age opened its gates to its first guests one hundred years ago in September 1918.
100 stories. They say that the first one is crucial in everything. Who could deny it? But for us, who write and edit the virtual exhibitions every week, each composition is special. Our one hundredth selection is also a special one, and we celebrate it in an unusual way.
The independent post administration turns 150
Nowadays, the classic form of postal services is being confined, though it served highly important needs at its birth. Today, it is used for paying cheques, buying lottery tickets or taking out insurances. The establishment of Magyar Posta (Hungarian Post) is connected to the Compromise, just like many other institutes are. Let’s see how its history developed.
The Kistelegdi Collection
Dr. István Kistelegdi, Ybl-prize winner architect and emeritus professor at the University of Pécs, Faculty of Engineering and Information Technology, donated his photo collection about his life work to the Local History Collection of Csorba Győző Library in 2012. He took more than 5000 photos as the designer of BARANYATERV (between 1972 and 1988) and later the designer of PÉCSITERV. The collection partly covers the state constructions of Pécs and Baranya, Somogy and Tolna counties since the 1970s until the change of regime.
The museum piece, the treasured and the concert
Kossuth, Kisfaludy, Szent István; some people can recognize them from the names. It is not a secret that we are going to set sail in our actual composition. First for the Danube and then for farther seas. The elder days of glory went by – concerning the Hungarian navigation – but fortunately, there are plenty of relics that can be admired live as well. Now all aboard and let us set sail virtually!
The rain in May is worth gold – and what about the wedding?
It is a cliché that May is the month of love, spring, and trees in bud, colourful flowers and the beginning of the wedding season. According to superstitions, there are a lot of things that have influences on the successful outcome of a marriage, besides the date and the weather. Let’s see some of them.
The Royal Hotel
The Royal Hotel or Grand Hotel Royal lived the everyday life of an ancient hotel: celebrities in the guest book, luxurious circumstances, a cinema in the ballroom; but it also witnessed sad events: a quarantine, the settlement of the Gestapo or bombardments in 1956.
The sculptor triumvirate of Túrkeve – the Finta brothers
The Finta brothers – Sándor, Gergely and Sámuel – were outstanding sculptor artists of the first half of the 20th century. Their life stories ran differently, they found their talents in other ways, but their lives were not only about sculpture. They were also occupied by medal art, graphic works, short stories and book illustrations. In our actual virtual tour, we are going to introduce the Finta artworks of Finta Museum of Túrkeve, in 3D digitised form besides the tanglesome life stories of the brothers.
The story of ice-cream
Although ice-cream is thought to be a typical Italian dessert, it originates from China. But in those times, it was rather like sorbets today, made of ice and fruits. It had an adventurous journey to Europe, but borderlines could not stop its spreading, and its popularity is still unbroken. Nowadays, only the nominal debates around dosage can cause some puzzling. Apart from that, you can have a scoop, a ball, a lick or a spatula of it with pleasure.
Theory of slumber
Some people are fond of it; some people think it is just a waste of time. In one way or another, you have to sacrifice eight hours a day on average in order to have your sleep out. People have always been interested in the mysterious world of sleeping and dreams. This is demonstrated well by the fact that this year’s Nobel Prize in Medicine was awarded to three American researchers for their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm.
Time travel on the Grand Boulevard
The grandiose vision of a civil engineer and the extravagant dream of some entrepreneurs materialized in one plan can convince and hold many people, inspiring them to do something for its realisation. The plan, which was about connecting the districts of a city dotted with scrappy one-storied houses, stables and workshops with a traffic route bordered with rows of palaces that could boost the city, was realised partly. This is the inspiring story of the Grand Boulevard of Pest.
Tisza shoes, at all times!
Martfű became famous as the peak of Hungarian shoes, though the Czech born Jan Antonin Baťa was the one who first saw fantasy in the little village by the Tisza. He bought the site of the shoe factory in 1939 and started producing three years later under the name Cikta Inc. After nationalisations, it received the well-sounding name Tisza Shoe Factory National Company and the rest is history. The irony of fate is that besides the shoe factory, Martfű went down in history with the atrocities of a serial killer. This week we are travelling to Martfű.
Towers are like exclamation marks at the end of sentences: they close down but also emphasize. A tower is a functional element in architecture; in sacral meaning: a form that links the sky and the earth. A tower is always a direction indicator, drawing attention, whether it is the ornament of a church, a reservoir or a transmission tower forwarding radio waves. Towers play the lead this week. Have a nice browsing!
Tramway of Pécs
The history of the public transport in Pécs reached an important milestone 105 years ago, because the first tram of the city was launched that day, and Pécs became the 29th city in the Monarchy, where tramway transport existed. In this week’s virtual conjuration of the past, we are going to introduce you the story and former routes of the tram of Pécs.
Tree as symbol
Your repeating daily rituals give you few occasions to notice the changes of our environment. Though, it is very calming to stroll under a shady alley and feel as the light filtered by leaves caresses your face. The life cycle of trees is similar to yours. Birth, budding youth, dignified old age. The symbol system related to trees is as old as humanity; this is our topic this week.
Under the open sky of Pest - on the plain side of Budapest
Last week we visited the former garden-restaurants, terraces and taverns of Buda and gained some insight into where the celebrities of the era, the middle-class citizens longing for amusement, or the members of aristocracy went out if they wanted to have a rest with a drink after a trip, or to have a good meal. Let’s see what happened meanwhile on the other side, in the shadows of plane trees and parks.
While walking on the yellow carpet of fallen leaves and tasting the flavoury grapes of the autumn, what else can come to one’s mind than the vine-harvest? Although grape-stomping and tamping are hard work, the harvest itself was and is considered a feast. It is about celebrating the fruit of a whole year’s work, which can be consumed later on. The date of vine-harvest used to be attached to an illustrious day in the 18th and 19th centuries: from Michaelmas (29 September) to the day of Saint Simon the Zealot (28 October). In several regions of the Hungarian Great Plain, the vine-harvest started at Michaelmas. In the Transdanubian and Transylvanian regions, it started on the day of Teresa of Avila (15 October); in the regions of Lake Balaton and Kőszeg, on the day of Saint Ursula (21 October) and it used to begin on the day of Saint Simon (28 October) in the Tokaj-Hegyalja region.
Viola Berki’s art
Art historians rate Viola Berki as a naive artist. Her fate is full of contradictions just like her art is. She admitted that she did a lot of illustration works, which was to the detriment of her painting. Her master was Géza Fónyi at the Art College, but Béla Kondor did great impression on her. This week you can get to know her oeuvre.
Summer and good weather have finally arrived. It is high time you went out and explore the well-known and hidden tourist places of Hungary. The sections of the Countrywide Blue Tour must be part of our selection, but other natural or historical sights are also included.
Visible and invisible 15th March
I am inviting our kind readers to a short virtual tour on the occasion of this illustrious day. We are going to see through what important historical events happened on the different points of the historic city centre of Pest on 15th March. We are going to study the history of buildings that were important locations: where they stood, if they still stand or what functions they served then and now. Follow me, please!
War gastronomy – not only the goulash is fake sometimes
It is not a novelty that work goes better when the stomach is full. But what can you do, when you do not have enough provisions? Egg-powder, tinned food, instant coffee, these are not the shopping list of a family that goes camping. Indeed, food substitutes appeared already in the First World War, to cater not only soldiers but also the civils, thinking about the lean times. We are going to look into the secrets of war cuisine this week.
Wash yourself cleverly – Time travel in hygiene I.
‘Have you washed your hands?’ – a familiar motherly warning from our childhood often comes to our minds before meals, especially, when we transmit this wisdom already as parents. In the recent decades, nobody disputes the importance of personal hygiene any more or puts the question if our flat has a bathroom. Washing your body is a basic part of the body culture including both cleaning your body and your clothes.
Wash yourself cleverly – Time travel in hygiene II.
The selection of toiletries satisfying all existing and non-existing requirements of the consumer society is almost endless: shampoos, toothpastes, shower gels, shower lotions, bath gels, bath balls, body washes and of course the most basic one: soap.
What he fought against became his destiny
The most respectful Hungarian medical university is named after Semmelweis. His birthday is the feast of medical workers, and his name became well known as the saviour of mothers. What kind of man was he? A hardheaded one. He collected a lot of enemies in the medical society with his persistent stubbornness, but it could not happen otherwise. In a period, when a good doctor was recognized by the smell of corpses remotely, he pestered the venerable doctors with sanitary regulations. On the occasion of his 200th birth anniversary, we are looking into his tragic walk of life and the story of the Hungarian medicine.
When computers were unemployed
Owing to John von Neumann and his colleagues, modern computers conquered research institutes and then our homes. The electronic computers which stored programmes and were made on the basis of the Neumann principles were huge giants that filled the whole room. The first really modern computer IAS was not an exception either. It was built at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton by the Neumann group, by 1951. After eight years, the first Hungarian computer M-3 started working on 21 January, 1959.
Where fashion is born – Goldberger Textile Mill
When talking about the Hungarian textile and clothes industries, many people might associate to nylon housecoats, jersey pulls or the May 1 Clothes Factory, though their traditions go back to a much longer time. Our current virtual exhibition allows you to follow the development of a small family blue dyer firm becoming the largest textile company of Hungary, while you can also get to know the touching story of the family behind the factory.
Who laughs last… - Laughter philosophical disquisitions
You laugh when you perceive something funny, if you recall an amusing event, if you are in the middle of a happy moment, if you enjoy something, feel embarrassed, feel uneasy or want to be sarcastic. Lots of positive and negative things can result in laughing, smiling, tittering. As it is a complex process, it has been examined in many ways from medicine to philosophy. We have collected some points of interest from these.
Willy Wonka in Szerencs
The favourite dessert of us all, the chocolate stands in the focus of our weekly exhibition. One of the most beloved sweets got into Europe from the land of the Aztecs just a couple of centuries ago. It is the trump ace at celebrations; normally the birthday cake also contains it, Santa Claus and the Easter Rabbit also bring chocolates in their own shapes, and its mass gets the heart form on Valentin’s Day.
Women at work
The habit of sharing work between sexes is as old as humankind. Women’s job or men’s job; nowadays one refrains from putting it so bluntly. One thing is sure, women have always worked, either on fields or in a family grocery, and later in different professions for salary. We would like to blandish to you with women’s history this week. There are going to be women behind a counter, in factories, in the role of a nurse or a foreworker.
You are wonderful, Tabán
The arrival of spring is indicated by not only the warmish breeze and chirping birds but also the fact that more and more people spend their lunches or dinners in the open-air. This time, we are lingering on cool terraces in the legendary Tabán of Budapest.
People’s attraction to exotic animals is not a novelty, nor their collection and ostentation. The richness and power of rulers were not indicated by just the content of their treasuries, but also by the number of special animals in their courts. In the London Tower, there was a zoo as early as in the 13th century, but of course, it was not like today’s modern zoos; they kept panthers and lions. In Hungary, probably King Matthias had the most particular animals. According to chronicles, two lions and a number of exotic bird species gave light to his court. Nowadays, the aim of zoos is not to entertain and show special animals any more, but to save species. Although the panda diplomacy avoids Hungary, it seems we do not run out of brown bears.